Our Advisers

Abenaki
Alamy Images Inc/Ellen McKnight; Corbis/Bettmann; Getty Images Inc/Archive Photos, NY Daily News Archive; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Elzbieta Sekowska

Algonquin
Alamy Images Inc/Mary Evans Picture Library, Yvette Cardozo; Corbis/Ben Powless; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; Newscom/UPI/Heinz Ruckeman; Shutterstock/Marek Stuchly

Apache
Alamy Images Inc/Lebrecht Music & Arts Photo Library, Mary Evans Picture Library, Tom Bean; Library of Congress/Edward S. Curtis; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; Shutterstock/Martin Novak; Superstock Inc/Pantheon

Arapaho
Getty Images Inc/Denver Post/Cyrus McCrimmon; Library of Congress/Edward S. Curtis; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Wikimedia

Arctic Culture Area
Alamy Images Inc/19th era; Getty Images Inc/Universal Images Group; Library of Congress; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/M. Cornelius

Blackfeet
Alamy Images Inc/SOTK2011; Corbis/Catherine Karnow; Getty Images Inc/Stock Montage; Library of Congress/Rodman Wanamaker; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; Shutterstock/Dean Fikar

California Culture Area
Library of Congress/Edward S. Curtis; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn

Chinook
Alamy Images Inc/Douglas Lander; Getty Images Inc/Alex Wong; Library of Congress/Edward S. Curtis; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives

Chumash
Braun Research Library Collection, Autry National Center, Los Angeles; p.618; Glow Images/National Geographic; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; Shutterstock/Richard J. Ashcroft

Cherokee
Alamy Images Inc/David Lyons, Lebrecht Music & Arts Photo Library; Library of Congress/John T. Bowen; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; Shutterstock/Borislav Borisov

Cheyenne
Dreamstime/Brian Meyer; Getty Images Inc/Getty Images Entertainment, Roll Call/Tom Williams; Library of Congress/Edward S. Curtis; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives

Chickasaw
Alamy Images Inc/Cliff Keeler; Corbis/Peter Turnley; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Oklahoma Historical Society; Photo courtesy of Lisa Jones

Choctaw
Corbis/Buddy Mays; Getty Images Inc/McClatchy-Tribune; Glow Images/National Geographic; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; Shutterstock/Antonio Abrignani, Igor Sirbu

Coast Miwok
Alamy Images Inc/Zuma Press; Getty Images Inc/Photo Researchers; Library of Congress/Edward S. Curtis; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; The Granger Collection New York; Shutterstock/Steve Byland

Comanche
Getty Images Inc/F. Lewis/Archive Photos; Library of Congress/William S. Soule; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; Shutterstock/Jill Lang; Superstock Inc/Buyenlarge

Cree
Alamy Images Inc/Aurora Photos, World History Archive; Glow Images/National Geographic, Newberry Library; Library and Archives of Canada/O.B. Buell/Canadian Intellectual Property Office fonds/C-001873;  Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; Newscom/Handout/Stornoway Diamond Corp; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Jody Ann

Creek
Muscogee (Creek) Nation; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/llaszio; The Granger Collection, New York

Crow
Alamy Images Inc/Interofoto; Getty Images Inc/Buyenlarge, LCDM Universal History Archive; Library of Congress/Edward S. Curtis; Shutterstock/JoLin; Superstock Inc/Pantheon, Prisma

Great Basin Culture Area
Library of Congress/C.C. Pierce, John K. Hillers; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Wildnerdpix

Great Plains Culture Area
Getty Images Inc/Hulton Archive; Library of Congress/Edward S. Curtis, James A. Miller; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives

Hopi
Alamy Images Inc/JT Vintage, Mireille Vautier; Getty Images Inc/Archive Photos; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/06photo

Inuit
Corbis/Charles Dharapak; Getty Images Inc/De Agostini Picture Library, Raul Touzon/National Geographic; Library and Archives of Canada/John Reeves; Library of Congress/Edward S. Curtis; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; Shutterstock/rook76

Iroquois
Alamy Images Inc/Vespasian; Getty Images Inc/Getty Images Entertainment; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/EpicStoeckMedia; Superstock Inc

Lakota (Teton Sioux)
Alamy Images Inc/John Parrot/Stocktrek Images; Getty Images Inc/Ulf Anderson; Library of Congress/Edward S. Curtis, John C.H. Grabill; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; Superstock Inc/John Warburton Lee

Lenni Lenape (Delaware)
Alamy Images Inc/James Nesterwitz; AP Images/Sue Ogrocki; Corbis/Bettmann; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Ricahrd Williamson

Native Hawaiians
Getty Images Inc/Bill Clark, Universal History Archive; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Boykov, cleanfotos, Malgorzata Litkowska, Mark52; Superstock Inc/Hawaiian Legacy Archives/Pacific Stock-Design Pic

Navajo
Getty Images Inc/Archive Photos, Universal Images Group; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives

Nez Perce
Library of Congress/G.M. Holland; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; Shutterstock/Rosalie Kreulen

Northeast Culture Area
Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives

Northwest Coast Culture Area
Glow Images/All Canada Photos, National Geographic; Library of Congress/Edward S. Curtis, Richard W. Dodson; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Superstock Inc/Michael DeFreitas/Robert Harding Picture Library

Ojibwa
AP Images/Jim Mone; Getty Images Inc/Tony Bock, Transcendental Graphics; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/David P. Lewis, Joseph Scott Photography; Superstock Inc/Christie’s Images Ltd.; Wikimedia

Osage
Alamy Images Inc/Chronicle, Ivy Close Images; Library of Congress/Drum, O.; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Ross Elliot; Wikimedia

Pawnee
Corbis/David Ball, Jacquelyn Martin; Getty Images Inc/Culture Club, De Agostini Picture Library, William Henry Jackson; Glow Images/Werner Forman Archives; Library of Congress/John Carbutt; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/gregor

Pequot
Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Photo by Alexis Ann; Shutterstock/BestPhotoPlus

Plateau Culture Area
Library of Congress/Edward S. Curtis, N.A. Forsyth, Sarony, Major & Knapp Lith., William Henry Jackson; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn

Pomo
Glow Images/National Geographic; Library of Congress/Edward S. Curtis; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; Shutterstock/mikeledray; The Sonoma County Library;

Potawatomi
Dreamstime/Ken Backer; Getty Images Inc/Universal Images Group/Hulton Fine Art; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Kevin Key; Wikimedia/National Archives

Powhatan
Alamy Images Inc/Jospeh Sohm, Lebrecht Music & Arts Photo Library; Library of Congress/Richard Norris Brooke; National Parks Service/Colonial National Historical Park; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Studiotouch

Pueblo
Denver Public Library; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/fotosutra.com, Sumikophoto; Superstock Inc/Christie’s Images Ltd.

Seminole
Florida State Archives; Getty Images Inc/Archive Photos, Buyenlarge, Hulton Archive; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Joop Hoek

Shawnee
Alamy Images Inc/YvetteCardozo; Library of Congress/Kurz & Allison; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; Shutterstock/Leena Robinson

Shoshone
Alamy Images Inc/nsf; Library of Congress/Rose & Hopkins; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Superstock Inc /Christie’s Images Ltd.

Sioux
Alamy Images Inc/Michael Matthews/Police Images, WorldPhotos; Getty Images Inc/Archive Photos, Dea Picture Library, Universal Images Group; Library of Congress/Edward S. Curtis; Photo courtesy of Virginia Hawk Sneve; Shutterstock/Sekar B; Superstock Inc/Christie’s Images Ltd., David David Gallery

Southeast Culture Area
Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives

Southwest Culture Area
Glow Images/National Geographic; Library of Congress/Pennington & Rowland; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives

Subarctic Culture Area
Corbis/Christopher J. Morris; Library of Congress; North Wind Picture Archives; Science Source/Gary Hincks; Shutterstock/Pi-Lens; Superstock Inc/Images Asset Management Ltd.

Tlingit
Alaska State Library Historical Collection; Getty Images Inc/Science & Society Picture Archives; Glow Images/National Geographic; Library of Congress; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Alberto Loyo

Ute
Alamy Images Inc/David R. Frazier; Library of Congress/ Frank S. Balster, John K. Hiller, Rose & Hopkins; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archive; Shutterstock/Johnny Adolphson, Peter Zijlstra

Wampanoag
Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/MWaits; Tara Prindle; The Granger Collection, New York

Zuni
Alamy Images Inc/National Geographic Image Collection; Library of Congress/Edward S. Curtis; Nativestock/Marilyn “Angel” Wynn; North Wind Picture Archives; Photo courtesy of Sunshine Studios; Shutterstock/Antonio Abrignani, Jason Patrick Ross,

All Video provided by North Wind Picture Archive

STATE ARTICLES MEDIA CREDITS

Alamy: Danita Delimont/Walter Bibikow, Lyroky, North Wind Picture Archives, PureStock, W.A. Hamilton, ZUMA Press, Inc.

Alaska State Library/Historical Collections

AP Images: Charles Sykes, Charles Tasnadi, Kellog Co.

BigStockPhoto.com: dosecreative

Bridgeman Images: Collection of the New-York Historical Society, USA/Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828), 1805 (oil on canvas), Peale, Charles W. (1741-1827) & Peale, Rembrandt (1778-1860)
Bridgeman Images/The Julia B. Bigelow Fund/Minneapolis Institute of Arts, MN, USA/View of Fort Snelling, c.1850 (oil on canvas), Thomas, Edward K. (1817-1906)

Capstone Library

Corbis: Bettmann, Burstein Collection/Barney Burstein, Courtesy of Glyndebourne Festival Opera; Ira Nowinski, David Muench, Gordon Parks, Historical, Sygma/James Andanson, Tarker

CriaImages.com/Jay Robert Nash Collection

Dreamstime: Americanspirit, Anton Farrugia, Bonita Cheshier, Carrienelson1, Cenk Unver, Chicco7, Dejan Lazarevic, Ewergryn, Georgios Kollidas, Igor Boldyrev, Jack Rogers, Jerry Coli, Joan Egert, Julia Freeman-woolpert, Julie Bush, Justinjohnson555, Ken Cole, Kenny Tong, Marcio Silva, Martin Ellis, Michael Wood, Mikephotos, Milahelp S.r.o. Milahelp S.r.o., Mille19, Painet, Radomír Režný, Reddogs, Robert Byron, Rox_amar, Roy E Farr, Russell Shively, Scott Anderson, Soh Kee Chuan, Thedisneyresort, Twildlife, Valentin Armianu

Elvis Presley Enterprises, Inc.

Getty Images: AFP, PAUL BUCK, Archive Photos/Consolidated News Pictures, Archive Photos/Interim Archives, Archive Photos/Kean Collection, Archive Photos/MPI, Archive Photos/Stock Montage, De Agostini Picture Library/DEA PICTURE LIBRARY, FilmMagic/Lucy Pemoni, Gamma-Rapho/Jean-Erick PASQUIER, Getty Images Entertainment/Bob Berg, Getty Images Entertainment/Jonathan Fickles, Getty Images Entertainment/Vince Bucci, Getty Images Entertainment/Ulf Andersen, Getty Images News/Stringer/Michael Williams, Getty Images Sport/Clive Brunskill, Getty Images Sport/Sports Studio Photos, Hulton Archive, Hulton Fine Art Collection/The British Library/Robana, Interim Archives, Michael Ochs Archives, National Geographic/Stephen Alvarez, Photo Researchers/Bruce Roberts, Photo Researchers/NYPL/Science Source, Photo Researchers/TOM MCHUGH, Photographer's Choice/Lisa J. Goodman, Science Faction/Library of Congress, Stocktrek Images/John Parrot, Stone/John Kuczala, Time & Life Pictuers/James Keyser, Time & Life Pictuers/Paul Conklin, Time & Life Pictures/Terry Smith, Visuals Unlimited, Inc./Jana Jirak, Visuals Unlimited/Ken Lucas

Globe Photo, Inc.: M. Berkley

Glow Images: Heritage Images/Keystone Archives, ImageBROKER RM/H.-D. Falkenstein, Nomad/, Roger Ressmeyer, Science Faction/Superstock, Superstock

Harpers Ferry Center/National Park Service

Idaho Tourism

iStockphoto: bgwalker, duncan1890, GeorgiosArt, HultonArchive, JanelleStreed, JordanListon, lemonadelucy, mychadre77, Pgiam, RiverNorthPhotography, RJHeurung, roc8jas, sebastian-julian, toddmedia, traveler1116, Willowpix

Karipearls.com

Karon Dubke/Capstone Publishers

Library of Congress
Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division: Alexander Gardner, Boyd and Braas, Carl Van Vechten, Carol M. Highsmith Archive, Chas. Fenderich & Co., David Bohrer, Edward S. Curtis Collection, Emil P. Spahn, Geo. Prince, George Grantham Bain Collection, H. B. Lindsley, Harris & Ewing, J.E. Miller, K.C., Jesse Harrison Whitehurst, Karl Schumacher, New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection, New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection/Ed Ford, New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection/Orlando Fernandez, Pach Brothers, Pete Souza, Strauss Peyton, Kansas City, Mo., The George F. Landegger Collection of Alabama Photographs in Carol M. Highsmith's America, U.S. News & World Report Magazine Photograph Collection/Thomas J. O'Halloran, U.S. News & World Report Magazine Photograph Collection/Warren K. Leffler, W.H. Gallagher Co., N.Y., Warren K. Leffler, William Charles Thompson, Alhambra, California
Library of Congress/Rare Book and Special Collections Division

Maxime Guinel

Minden Pictures: Martin B Withers, Michael Quinton

Minnesota Historical Society

Missouri Division of Tourism

NASA
NASA: Donald R. Pettit

National Archives & Records Administration

National Geographic Creative

National Park Service: Everglades National Park, Harpers Ferry Center, Yosemite National Park

Nevada-Landmarks/Paul Sebesta

Newscom: AdMedia/Byron Purvis, akg-images, Album/BULL, CLARENCE SINCLAIR, Album/M.G.M., Andre Jenny Stock Connection Worldwide, Angel Wynn Danita Delimont Photography, Arco Images G/picture alliance/Reinhard, H., Cal Sport Media/Chris Szagola, DanitaDelimont.com Danita Delimont Photography/David R. Frazier, DanitaDelimont.com Danita Delimont Photography/Dennis Brack, Denis Alix, Dennis Brack, Dorling Kindersley Universal Images Group, Everett Collection, Everett Collection/CSU Archives, Fred Stein/picture alliance, Icon SMI/John Cordes, Icon SMI/Tony Donaldson, Icon SMI/TSN/Icon SMI 800/TSN, ITAR-TASS, JD3 WENN Photos, Jeff Malet Photography, Jeff Schultz/Jeff Schultz/Design Pics, KRT/PETE SOUZA, KRT/RANDALL HILL, KRT/TONI STROUD, Kyodo/*, MCT/Grace Saenz Dickson, Oronoz/Album, PHOTOlink, Picture History, picture-alliance/dpa/Oliver Berg, R. APPIANI Universal Images Group/DEA, REUTERS/Jim Young, REUTERS/KEVIN LAMARQUE, Splash News/Photopress PR, Tampa Bay Times/St Petersburg Times, USA Today Sports/Joe Camporeale, Walter Bibikow Danita Delimont, ZOJ WENN Photos/JLC

Newscom: ZUMA Press:, Laura Farr, Robin Nelson, Tina Fultz, Brian Cahn, KEYSTONE Pictures USA, Nancy Kaszerman, The Commercial Appeal

NOAA: Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission

North Wind Picture Archives

Obsessed Photographers Group: Daron W. Krueger

Science Source: Allen Green, Dirk Wiersma, Mark A. Schneider

Shutterstock: 169420007, 2009fotofriends, 3523studio, 360b, 375Ultramag, 6015714281, aastock, Action Sports Photography, Adam Parent, Africa Studio, AHPix, akiyoko, Al Mueller, Alaettin YILDIRIM, Alan C. Heison, Aleksei Verhovski, Aleksey Stemmer, Alexander Maksimov, Alexey Stiop, alisafarov, Allan Wood Photography, Allen Berezovsky, amir bajrich, Anatoly Vlasov, Andrea J Smith, Andreas Juergensmeier, Andreas Koeberl, Andrew F. Kazmierski, Andrew Zarivny, Andrey Bayda, Andrey Kozyntsev, Aneese, Angel DiBilio, Annmarie Young, Anthony Ricci, Antoly Vlasov, Anton Oparin, apiguide, Artem Furman, Arto Hakola, Artush, ArtWell, atanasija1, B Calkins, B. Speckart, bddigitalimages, Becky Sheridan, Ben Keys, Jr., Benjamin Simeneta, Bertl123, Beth Swanson, BGSmith, bikeriderlondon, Bildagentur Zoonar GmbH, bitt24, Blue Vista Design, bluebullet, bluehand, Blulz60, bobbieh76, Bonnie Taylor Barry, Bos11, Boykov, Boykung, Brad Camembert, Brad Whitsitt, Brandon Alms, Brent Hofacker, Bridget Calip, Bruce MacQueen, Bruce Raynor, C_Eng-Wong Photography, Candace Hartley, carrie-nelson, Cartela, Catmando, Chantelle Bosch, Cheryl Ann Quigley, ChinellatoPhoto, Chris Hill, Christian Delbert, Christopher Halloran, Christopher S. Howeth, Cindy Creighton, cinemafestival, ClimberJAK, col, Colin D. Young, Connie Barr, Creativa, cristalvi, Cristi Bastian, Cristina Negoita, CVHB Photography, cvm, Dani Vincek, Daniel Prudek, Dapixstudio, Darren J. Bradley, Darryl Brooks, David Brian Williamson, David Byron Keener, David Spates, Dawn J Benko, Dean Fikar, Dean Pennala, Debby Wong, Dec Hogan, Delmas Lehman, Denis Tabler, Dennis Donohue, dezi, DFree, Diane Garcia, digitaldarrell, dimair, dinozzaver, Dmitry Kalinovsky, dmvphotos, dolphfyn, Domenic Gareri, Don Bendickson, Don Mammoser, Donna Beeler, doomu, Dorti, Doug Lemke, Doug Meek, dustin77a, ekina, Elena Elisseeva, elinorb, Elizabeth Cronin, EpicStockMedia, Eric Broder Van Dyke, Erick Margarita Images, Erni, Ethan Daniels, Everett Collection, eZeePics Studio, farbled, Featureflash, Filip Bjorkman, Filip Fuxa, Firma V, Flashon Studio, Foodio, forestpath, Francey, Frank L Junior, Fredlyfish4, freya-photographer, Frontpage, fstockfoto, Galyna Andrushko, Gary Whitton, gary yim, gary718, Georgios Kollidas, Gerald A. DeBoer, gillmar, GoBOb, Greg Amptman, Greg Kushmerek, Heather Nicaise, Helga Esteb, Henryk Sadura, hjschneider, Holly Kuchera, humbak, Hysteria, IDAK, Images by Dr. Alan Lipkin, Images by Maria, Imfoto, iofoto, IrinaK, isak55, isoga, Israel Pabon, IVY PHOTOS, J. Bicking, J. Schelkle, Jacek Jasinski, Jakez, Jan Lockwood, Jan Miko, Jan-Dirk Hansen, Jason and Bonnie Grower, Jason Maehl, Jason Patrick Ross, Jay Boucher, Jay Ondreicka, Jay Stuhlmiller, jdwfoto, Jeff Banke, Jeff Feverston, Jeffrey M. Frank, Jeffrey T. Kreulen, jennyt, jessicakirsh, Jill Nightingale, Jim Feliciano, Jiri Hera, Jiri Vaclavek, jo Crebbin, Joakim Lloyd Raboff, Jody Ann, Joe Seer, Joel Shawn, John A Davis, John Brueske, John McCormick, John Wollwerth, Johnny Adolphson, JoMo333, Jon Bilous, Jorg Hackemann, Jorge Moro, Joy Stein, joyfuldesigns, JStone, Juan G. Aunion, Juice Team, Julio Embun, JuneJ, kaband, kanusommer, Karen Gentry, Karen Struthers, Karin Hildebrand Lau, Kat Mack, Katherine Welles, Kathleen Struckle, Kazakov Maksim, Ken Wolter, Kenneth Keifer, Kevin H Knuth, Khakimullin Aleksandr, KimPinPhotography, Kletr, Kondor83, Konstantnin, krasky, Krasowit, kshiota, KumikoMurakamiCampos, KWJPHOTOART, kzww, L F File, Larsek, Laura Mountainspring, lauraslens, Leana Robinson, Legacy Images, LehaKoK, Lenka_N, leungchopan, lev radin, LFRabanedo, Lindsay Douglas, Lissandra Melo, ljh images, Lonnie Gorsline, Lori Howard, LorraineHudgins, Lovell, LUCARELLI TEMISTOCLE, luchschen, Lyndsey McCall, Lynn Watson, M. Cornelius, M.Khebra, Madlen, MaIII Themd, Makarova Viktoria, Malgorzata Litkowska, Manamana, Mara Popa, Marc Venema, MarcelClemens, Marcio Jose Bastos Silva, margouillat photo, Maria Komar, Maridav, Mariusz S. Jurgielewicz, Mark Baldwin, MarkVanDykePhotography, Martha Marks, Mary Terriberry, Maryna Pleshkun, Matt Jeppson, Mavar, max voran, MaxyM, Mayabuns, MBoe, Melinda Fawver, Menna, Merkushev Vasiliy, mextrix, Michael C. Gray, Michael Cummings, Michael Richardson, Miriam Doerr, Mitch Johanson, mj007, Mona Makela, Monika Wieland, Moolkum, MP cz, Muskoka Stock Photos, MVPhoto, Nagel Photography, Nancy Bauer, Nancy Gill, NancyS, Natalia Bratslavsky, Natalia Ganelin, Nerthuz, Neveshkin Nikolay, Nick Lundgren, nikitsin.smugmug.com, Nitr, oksana2010, Oleksandr Lysenko, Oleksiy Mark, Oleksiy Naumov, Olga Lyubkina, Oreena, Oregonez, Orhan Cam, outdoorsman, Patricia Chumillas, Patricia Hofmeester, Pattakorn Uttarasak, Paul Orr, pavel89l, Pekka Nikonen, Pete Spiro, Peter Kunasz, Peter Leahy, PeterVrabel, Phent, Philip Lange, Photo Works, Photographee.eu, photowind, Pi-Lens, Pierre Leclerc, pisaphotography, plasid, Potapov Alexander, R_Szatkowski, Raffaella Calzoni, Rainbohm, Rainer Plendl, Randall Stevens, Randy Miramontez, Raymona Pooler, Raymond B. Summers, Rena Schild, Renata Sedmakova, Ricardo Reitmeyer, Richard Cavalleri, Ritu Manoj Jethani, rj lerich, Rob Hainer, robcocquyt, Robert Manley, Ron Blanton, Rosalie Kreulen, Ross Thompson, RRuntsch, RTimages, Rudy Balasko, Rusty Dodson, Ruth Berkowitz, Ruth Peterkin, Ryan M. Bolton, s_bukley, S.Borisov, sakhorn, Sarah Cates, Sarah Jessup, Sari ONeal, schankz, Sean Lema, Sean Pavone, Sementer, Semmick Photo, Serenethos, Sergey Goruppa, SergeyIT, sergioboccardo, SF photo, Shane Gross, Shari Malin, Sharon Day, sherwood, Shulevskyy Volodymyr, smereka, SNEHIT, Sombra, Songquan Deng, Sony Ho, South Bay Lee, spirit of america, StacieStauffSmith Photos, Stacy Funderburke, Stefano Cavoretto, Steve Bower, Steve Byland, steve estvanik, Steve Heap, Steve Oehlenschlager, Steven Frame, steven pease, StevenRussellSmithPhotos, stocklight, StockPhotosLV, Stocksnapper, straga, Stubblefield Photography, Subbotina Anna, Suchan, Sue Smith, T.Dallas, tab62, Tamara Kulikova, Tarasyuk Igor, TaSha1201, teekaygee, Teresa Levite, Teri and Jackie Soares, TFoxFoto, Thomas Barrat, thomas eder, Tim Roberts Photography, Timolina, TinaImages, Tobias Ott, tobkatrina, Todd Klassy, Tom Grundy, Tom Reichner, Tom Roche, Tom Tietz, tome213, TommyBrison, topseller, torm, Tucker James, Tupungato, tusharkoley, Tutti Frutti, TwilightArtPictures, Tyler Boyes, Tyler Hartl, Tyler Olson, V. Belov, Valentyn Volkov, Valentyn Volkov, Vasilius, Vasily Smirnov, Vera Zinkova, Vibe Images, Victoria V. Ratnikova, Virunja, Vitaly Ilyasov, Vlad G, Vlada Z, Vladimir Sazanov, Vladimir Shulenin, Warren Price Photography, Weldon Schloneger, Wendy Farrington, wiktord, Wildnerdpix, Wollertz, Yellowj, Yongcharoen_kittiyaporn, You Touch Pix of EuToch, Yu Lan, Yufeng Wang, Zack Frank, Zamada, Zeljko Radojko, Zigzag Mountain Art, Zuzule

Superstock Inc.:Nomad

The Bridgeman Art Library/© Look and Learn/Private Collection/John Colter, Baraldi, Severino (b.1930)

U.S. Air Force photo

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: Duane Raver, Hollingsworth, J & K

U.S. Geological Survey
U.S. Geological Survey/Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database/USFWS, Nevada Fish & Wildlife Office

United States Department of Agriculture
United States Department of Agriculture: Loren St. John, Lynn Betts

Veronica Wald

Wikimedia: Alex Huck, Anders Lagerås, Ballista, Bjr97543, Bkell, Cory Maylett, Curtis Clark, DaveHood, David Rix Eibonvale, Didier Descouens, Douglas Kaye, Ebustad, Elmer Chickering, ForestWander, François Marchal, Ghedoghedo, Helgi, HomeinSalem, J. Miers, John Phelan, Jyamuca, Matt Lavin, Megan McCarty, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Park Service, Roca Ruiz, Senate.gov, SkepticVK, sleepysmile, Smokeybjb, Steven G. Johnson, T9500, Tolyab, USDA Forest Service, USDA Forest ServiceSRS-4552/Erich G. Vallery, USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/Sheri Hagwood, Wilson44691

Wikipedia: Craig D. Young

Adaptation
Shutterstock: Alena Ozerova, Brian A Jackson, Dmytro Pylypenko, Everett Historical, Kjersti Joergensen, Matt Jeppson, nicolasvoisin44, scubadesign, Shevs, Stuart G. Porter, Wilm Ihlenfeld, zlikovec

Alternative Energy
Shutterstock: Alex Mit, Carlos Munoz, Chones, Constantine Androsoff, Monkey Business Images, N.Minton, Smileus, Stockr, USAart studio, Vizavi

Animal Cells
Shutterstock: Alila Medical Media, Andrii Vodolazhskyi, Designua, Nimedia, photowind, Tefi

Artificial Selection
North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: catwalker, dotv2, Everett Historical, Grandpa, Mikkel Bigandt

Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Shutterstock: bikeriderlondon, Francesco Ferrarini, Georgios Kollidas, Hurst Photo, Pavel Ilyukhin, Photodiem, Uber Images

Atoms
Shutterstock: Awstok, BlueRingMedia, chromatos, Designua, Dragon Images, Everett Historical, Georgy Shafeev, honglouwawa, Roman Sigaev, snapgalleria

Avalanches
Alamy: Leon Werdinger; Getty Images: AFP/Philippe Desmazes; Shutterstock: Andrew Arseev, bikeriderlondon, Designua, Lysogor Roman, My Good Images, X-treme Video

Bacteria
Science Source: Biophoto Associates; Shutterstock: Adam Gregor, BlueRingMedia, chombosan, heromen30, Lightspring, Oleksiy Fedorov, sumroeng chinnapan; Wikimedia

Biodiversity
Shutterstock: Andrey Gudkov, AuntSpray, Esteban De Armas, geertweggen, Kateryna Kon, Lapis2380, Monkey Business Images, Ryan M. Bolton, Sementer, Tanya Rusanova, wavebreakmedia

Black Holes
Library of Congress; NASA: ESA/D. Coe, J. Anderson, and R. van der Marel (Space Telescope Science Institute), ESA/M.J. Jee and H. Ford (Johns Hopkins University), Goddard Space Flight Center, JPL-Caltech, JPL-Caltech/University of Wisconsin; Shutterstock: Alex Pix, Jiri Vratislavsky, Jurik Peter, Paul Fleet

Blizzards
AP Photo: Pueblo Chieftain/Chris McLean; Getty Images: New York Daily News Archive, Library of Congress; Shutterstock: Devali Photos, Dmitri Ma, Irina Igumnova, Narongsak Nagadhana, Peppersmint, photka, TFoxFoto, Vadym Crutyvus

Camouflage
Dreamstime: Aiyoshi, Mgkuijpers; Library of Congress; Shutterstock: Andrey Gudkov, Bildagentur Zoonar GmbH, Brian Lasenby, Daro Sabljak, Ethan Daniels, gabriel12, Jason Mintzer, JD Duff, Mark52, Matt Jeppson, ostill, Ramon Carretero, rodimov, Sergey Uryadnikov, Tony Campbell, true nature, Vladimir Melnikov

Caves
Shutterstock: andreiuc88, aquapix, Doug Meek, eXpose, Ginger Livingston Sanders, Henrik Larsson, Kuttelvaserova Stuchelova, Pakhnyushchy, redswept, Santi Rodriguez, saraporn, THPStock

Cell Division
Shutterstock: Alila Medical Media, Designua, joshya, Lukiyanova Natalia/frenta, olekpieta, photoiconix, Sergey Nivens

Chemical Changes
Shutterstock: Andrea Danti, Designua, mapichai, Niar, photopixel, sakhorn, Scruggelgreen, snapgalleria

Circulatory System
National Geographic Creative: QA International; Shutterstock: Alexander Ermolaev, Alila Medical Media, BlueRingMedia, Cliparea/Custom Media, Crevis, ifong, Nataly Ponomarenko, u3d, udaix

Climate Types
Capstone Press; Shutterstock: Alexander Kuguchin, Darlene Cutshall, Elliotte Rusty Harold, George Cole, icarmen13, Jon Bilous, K_Boonnitrod, Kamira, KPegg, Lucy Baldwin, OlegD, pisaphotography, Pommy.Anyani, roundstripe, Stephane Bidouze, Stock4KVideo, Taiftin, Tropinina Olga, Trountnut, Vilainecrevette

Clouds
Minden Pictures: Jim Brandenburg; Shutterstock: aga7ta, Alex Egorov, Andrea J. Smith, C_Eng-Wong Photography, ducu59us, Elenarts, Justin Hobson, photolinc, Shico, Stefano Garau, Thatchai Wanitchakun, Thon Varirit

Conservation of Energy
Shutterstock: Andrei Nekrassov, Chones, CoraMax, Dolly, Dutourdumonde Photography, Larysa Drobot, Morphart Creation, Neveshkin Nikolay, Skalapendra

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Shutterstock: Budimir Jevtic, jamesdeanny, mikeledray, Nicku, wavebreakmedia

Deforestation
Shutterstock: Banana Republic Images, bonga1965, Brian Balster, chris kolaczan, Everett Historical, grafxart, guentermanaus, Kameel4u, RTimages, Tuanjai Pratumma

Deserts
Shutterstock: Adwo, Anton Foltin, astudio, Galyna Andrushko, Konrad Mostert, LuminatePhotos by Judith, Maksym Deliyergiyev, mario.bono, Maxim Petrichuk, Nithid, nopporn, ronnybas, totajla, VIA films, Yegor Larin

Digestive System
National Geographic Creative: QA International; Shutterstock: Alila Medical Media, Bogdan Wankowicz, Designua, La Gorda, sciencepics

Droughts
Shutterstock: Bruce C. Murray, Everett Historical, goodluz, Luiz Ferreira, Rich Lonardo, Robert Adrian Hillman, sima, StudioDo

Dwarf Planets
Dreamstime: Mila Gligoric; NASA: ESA/A. Feild (STScI), ESA/A. Parker (Southwest Research Institute), ESA/Adolph Schaller (for STScI), Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute, JPL-Caltech, JPL-Caltech/ESA/ATG Medialab, JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA; Shutterstock: edobric, Elenarts, Johan Swanepoel; Wikimedia

Earth
NASA: Goddard Space Flight Center, JPL; Shutterstock: Adwo, Aphelleon, Designua, hareluya, Maxim Tupikov, Mopic, Nicku, Peter Hermes Furian, seveniwe, turtix

Earthquakes
Getty Images: Bettmann; Science Source: Gary Hincks; Shutterstock: Cico, Everett Historical, Leremy, MIVP, Naeblys, Semnic, think4photop, Tom Wang

Electricity and Circuits
Shutterstock: Africa Studio, Chones, Colin Stitt, Designua, Everett Historical, Icatnews, kornilov007, Monkey Business Images, Olivier Le Queinec, SergBob, SJ Travel Photo and Video, snapgalleria, SpaceKris, Volodymyr Burdiak

Electromagnetism
Science Source: SPL; Shutterstock: AlexandrBognat, Designua, Everett Historical, Mauro Carli, oneinchpunch, sciencepics, snapgalleria

Elements and the Periodic Table
Shutterstock: chromatos, concept w, julie deshaies, marianstock, Paul Stringer, Peter Hermes Furian, vchal

Endangered Species
Shutterstock: atiger, AuntSpray, Bargotiphotography, CrackerClips Stock Media, dangdumrong, David J. Martin, Heiti Paves, Larry B. King, Orhan Cam, Richard Whitcombe, Richard Whitcombe, SASER, Volodymyr Gionyk, wk1003mike, Yann Hubert

Endocrine System
National Geographic Creative: QA International; Shutterstock: Alila Medical Media, Designua, joshya, S K Chavan, Sebastian Kaulitzki, stockshoppe, Syda Productions

Energy and Forces
Newscom: KRT/Simmons; Shutterstock: bikeriderlondon, Designua, Fouad A. Saad, Innershadows Photography, Joel O’Brien, MrStudio2, NoPainNoGain

Erosion and Weathering
NASA: MODIS Science Team/University of Wisconsin-Madison/Space Science and Engineering Center/Liam Gumley; Shutterstock: bjul, iryna1, Jan Mika, Matthew J. Thomas, Rick Ray, ronnybas, steveball, sumikophoto, ventdusud, Zack Frank

Evolution
Newscom: akg-images, Mint Images/Frans Lanting; Science Source: David Gifford; Shutterstock: Catmando, Nicku, Paul van den Berg, robuart, Ron Rowan Photography, TravelTelly

Excretory System
National Geographic Creative: QA International; Shutterstock: BlueRingMedia, Designua, joshya, Magic mine, MSSA, S K Chavan, snapgalleria, Tefi

Extinction
Shutterstock: Atomazul, AuntSpray, Catmando, Linda Bucklin, Morphart Creation, Nicolas Primola, Ozgur Coskun, Phonlawat_51, Svetlana Foote, Tekweni1

Floods
Dreamstime: Blackkango; FEMA: Jocelyn Augustino; Shutterstock: Armin Rose, David Greitzer, Dean Kerr, Elzbieta Sekowska, fabiodevilla, forestpath, Jerry Horbert, Leonard Zhukovsky, meunierd, Mike Buchheit, Scott Prokop, VaderVideo, Vladimir Melnikov

Food Chains
Shutterstock: Barbo Bergfeldt, bierchen, bikeriderlondon, Claudia Naerdemann, DPS, Family Business, Greg Brave, mario.bono, mchin, NoPainNoGain, Patila, Sergey Uryadnikov

Food Webs
Shutterstock: alinabel, BGSmith, David Dirga, Dennis W. Donohue, DSLR, Inga Nielsen, kzww, Marco Lavagnini, nj1987, old apple, snapgalleria, Sorin Alb, T.M. McCarthy

Forecasting Weather
Shutterstock: Artur Synenko, Dmitri Ma, Images By Kenny, kosmos111, Lavinia Bordea, LittleStocker, M.Stasy, mahey, orbitrob, peresanz, Viktorija Reuta, Vitoriano Junior

Fossils
Shutterstock: alice-photo, mangomonsters, MarcelClemens, Mark Godden, Oleksandr Presniakov, Rob Bayer, Tanaklit Teja, Thanapun, Vladimir Sazonov

Friction
Shutterstock: Africa Studio, Aleksei Lazukov, BlueRingMedia, Designua, Ensuper, freeproduction, Greg Epperson, Joost van Uffelen, Paolo Bona, supergenijalac, Vanessa Nel, Volt Collection, wk1003mike

Gases
Shutterstock: 3Dme Creative Studio, aekikuis, Alila Medical Media, cigdem, concept w, Designua, Fouad A. Saad, Rob Marmion, snapgalleria, Toa55, Vitoriano Junior

Genes, Chromosomes, and DNA
National Geographic Creative: QA International; Shutterstock: Designua, ellepigrafica, joshya, Rawpixel, Sergey Nivens, Webspark

Genetic Mutations
Shutterstock: Africa Studio, Designua, ellepigrafica, joshya, Maxim Maksutov, Razvan Ionut Dragomirescu, Webspark, WGBH Educ. Foundation

Glaciers as a Water Source
Shutterstock: AsiaTravel, Bernhard Staehli, Dmytro Pylypenko, Gaspar Janos, Jenny Leonard, Rick Ray, saraporn, Sergey Didenko, Sergey_Bogomyako, Thomas Lusth, Tranquility–Photos by Tom

Grasslands
Shutterstock: BGSmith, djgis, Elizabeth C. Zurek, Ingrid Curry, Nancy Bauer, pangcom, Pronghorn Productions, Ricardo Reitmeyer, Ruud Morjin Photographer, Sergey Uryadnikov, Tom Reichner

Gravity
NASA; Shutterstock: Bertl123, Corepics VOF, Crystal Eye Studio, Designua, Hurst Photo, IM_photo, MIVP, wickerwood

Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming
Shutterstock: Astakhov Alexander, corbac40, David Carillet, Denis Burdin, honglouwawa, Marina Lohrbach, rawcaptured photography, Spotmatik Ltd., Vitoriano Junior

Group Behavior
Shutterstock: Gregory Johnston, John Michael Evan Potter, Johnny Adolphson, Michael Pettigrew, NorwayStock, Oleg Znamenskiy, Paul Vinten, Paulphin Photography

Heredity
Science Source: Wilson Sutton; Shutterstock: Capreola, ellepigrafica, lotan, Meletios, Monkey Business Images, Ollyy, Victoria Shapiro, Voronin76

Hibernation
Minden Pictures: Ingo Arndt; Shutterstock: Andreas Argirakis, Annaliese Johnson, Bote1973, MarkMirror, Martin Janca, Mike Bauer, saguari, YanLev, zlikovec

Humans and the Atmosphere
Shutterstock: capa55, cigdem, connel, designbydx, Guas, Joyce Vincent, kekartash, studio23, Toa55, Vadim Petrakov

Humans and the Biosphere
Shutterstock: Dutourdumonde Photography, freedomnaruk, Jeffrey B. Banke, Kodda, mariait, Miguel(ito), Photostock10, Rich Carey, Rich Carey, Stock image, studio23, Volt Collection, wavebreakmedia

Humans and the Earth
Shutterstock: anweber, Derinmedia, Dragana Gerasimoski, Huguette Roe, Martin Mecnarowski, Sergey Neupokoev, Signature Message, ssuaphotos, stockfotoart, Take Photo, VanderWolf Images

Humans and the Hydrosphere
Shutterstock: Ahturner, AuntSpray, Inc, Incredible Arctic, John Wollwerth, Maciej Bledowski, Naeblys, photopixel, shutterlk, Tish1, topseller

Hurricanes
Alamy: dieKleinert, Photo Resource Hawaii; Getty Images: CON/Stephan Kogelman, Joe Raedle, New York Public Library; Newscom: EPA/Gary I. Rothstein; Science Source: José Antonio Peñas; Shutterstock: Cathy Kovarik, Cheryl Ann Quigley, Dopolous, Harvepino, Lisa F. Young, Marc Pagani Photography, Mishella

Igneous Rocks
Shutterstock: aleks-p, Artography, component, corbac40, Don Mammoser, Frontpage, Nickolay Stanev, Ocskay Bence, pics721, sandatlas, Trazos sobre Papel, Tyler Boyes

Immune System
National Geographic Creative: QA International; Shutterstock: beeboys, CLUSTERX, JPC-PROD, Kateryna Kon, Lightspring, Rob Marmion, Roberto Piras, Sebastian Kaulitzki, toeytoey

Information Technology
Newscom: Jonathan Hordle; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, goodluz, Gorodenkoff, Milkovasa, Monkey Business Images, ProStockStudio

Inherited Traits
National Geographic Creative: QA International; Shutterstock: Boule, Christopher Elwell, Dmitry Kalinovsky, GeK, Giovanni Cancemi, Jens Goepfert, Maggy Meyer, Paul Reeves Photography, Tracy Whiteside

Invasive Species
Getty Images: Joe Raedle; Newscom: Zuma Press/Mike Rochford; Shutterstock: 1082492116, Artenex, Baurz1973, Beth Swanson, Danny E Hooks, Jeff Caughey, Martchan

Jobs in Earth Science
Shutterstock: Adwo, Andrey Armyagov, John A. Davis, Microgen, Minerva Studio, REC Stock Footage, rickephotos, Sergio Ponomarev, Wead

Jobs in Life Science
Shutterstock: Abd. Halim Hadi, belizar, dualstock, Kirsanov Valeriy Vladimirovich, pirita, pixelrain, Sergio Ponomarev, stefanolunardi, wavebreakmedia

Jobs in Physical Science
Shutterstock: antb, Dmitry Kalinovsky, lightpoet, lightpoet, PhotoSky, RGtimeline, SF photo

Jupiter
Dreamstime: Radist; NASA: ESA/G. Bacon and M. Estacion (STScI), ESA/I. de Pater and M. Wong (University of California, Berkeley), Hubble Space Telescope Comet Team, JPL, JPL/University of Arizona, JPL-Caltech, JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute, Ken Hodges; Shutterstock: Everett Art, Kirschner, ldambies, MarcelClemens, Mevan, Mopic, mr.Timmi, Tristan3D

Lakes as a Water Source
Shutterstock: Anton Balazh, Elena Elisseeva, Ethan Daniels, Evgeny Sayfutdinov, JeniFoto, John Wollwerth, Nelu Goia, Nickolay Vinokurov, Pierre Leclerc, stockvideofactory, Vereshchagin Dmitry

Layers of the Atmosphere
Science Source; Shutterstock: Bildagentur Zoonar GmbH, Boris Rabtsevich, Crystal-K, Datskevich Aleh, Designua, Fouad A. Saad, IM_photo, Incredible Arctic, Juhku, Mette Fairgrieve, NoPainNoGain, REC Stock Footage

Learned Traits
Dreamstime: Pslow68; Shutterstock: Claudia Otte, JoLin, Kellymmiller73, LeniKovaleva, Mackland, Maggy Meyer, Oleg Podzorov

Life Cycles
Shutterstock: aekikuis, Catchlight Studio, Doug Lemke, jps, kerstiny, KPG-Payless, Matteo photos, Rashid Valitov, Rick Ray, snapgalleria, Vishnevskiy Vasily

Light Energy
Shutterstock: Anton Petrus, Baldas1950, Designua, eveleen, James Benet, KPG_Payless, Milagli, Naga Venkatesh Sankar R, photoiconix, Przemyslaw Skibinski, Tefi

Light Waves
Science Source: SPL; Shutterstock: Daniel Schweinert, Emi Cristea, fluidworkshop, jordache, Pete Hermes Furian, photoiconix, snapgalleria

Liquids
Shutterstock: afitz, Alexey V Smirnov, Andrey_Kuzmin, Designua, Dotta 2, Naeblys, Oksana Shufrych, paulaphoto, Shutterstock Prime

Magnetism
Science Source: Cordelia Molloy; Shutterstock: Aleksandr Pobedimskiy, Ezz Mika Elya, Fouad A. Saad, imagedb, koya979, NoPainNoGain, Pat_Hastings, Peter Hermes Furian, Ruslan Grechka, WGBH Educ. Foundation

Mars
Dreamstime: Elvira Kolomiytseva; NASA: Goddard Space Flight Center, GSFC, J. Bell (Cornell U.)/M. Wolff (SSI), James Bell (Cornell Univ.)/Michael Wolff (Space Science Inst.)/The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), JPL, JPL/Cornell University, JPL-Caltech/ASU/UA, JPL-Caltech/GSFC/Univ. of Arizona, JPL-Caltech/MSSS, Pat Rawlings, USGS; Shutterstock: Mopic

Measuring and Mapping Weather
Shutterstock: Aleksandr Stepanov, Andrey Armyagov, Barry Blackburn, Dmitri Ma, dvande, Maksym Darakchi, Maksym Darakchi, pixfly, Praisaeng, Rekindle Photo and Video, Robert Adrian Hillman, Vadym Zaitsev

Mercury
ESA; NASA: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington, JPL; Shutterstock: Allegresse Photography, BasPhoto, mapichai, Mopic

Metamorphic Rocks
Capstone Press; Shutterstock: Ambient Ideas, Artesia Wells, M Andy, Mark Heighes, Mawardi Bahar, Nikitin Victor, Nonnakrit, sandatlas, Sigur, Vladimir Tronin, vvoe

Metamorphosis
Shutterstock: almond, Eric Isselee, Geoffrey Kuchera, Joe Belanger, Kazakova Maryia, kerstiny, kurt_G, Mathisa, Matt Jeppson, Rick Ray, Steven Russell Smith Photos, vblinov

Migration
Dreamstime: Welshi23; Shutterstock: Ana Gram, BMJ, Dmussman, Ethan Daniels, FotoRequest, Jana Shea, JHVEPhoto, jwjarrett, Keneva Photography, melissaf84, MLArduengo, Olivier Juneau, Paul Sparks, Sjoerd van der Wal, Steve Byland

Mimicry
Shutterstock: Alan Bailey, Arto Hakola, c. mokri austria, JGade, Luke Suen, Matt Jeppson, mountainpix, Suzi44

Minerals
Shutterstock: Adrian Ciurea, Albert Russ, farbled, J. Palys, Julia Reschke, leventina, MarcelClemens, Mclein, MrBright, O.Bellini, Tom Grundy

Molecules and Compounds
Shutterstock: bjul, BlueRingMedia, Designua, Dimitrios Christou, magnetix, qoppi, Ruslan Grechka, schankz, Yuriy Vlasenko

Moon
NASA: Goddard Space Flight Center, JPL-Caltech, NOAA; Newscom: Heritage Images/Fine Art Images; Shutterstock: 3DMaestro, Astrobobo, BlueRingMedia, Dean Pennala, gvictoria, Kuttelvaserova Stuchelova, Matyas Rehak, Melissa King, Thomas Nord

Mountains
Shutterstock: BGSmith, Dennis W. Donohue, Dominik Michalek, Ignacio Salaverria, Robert van der Schoot, Scandphoto, VideoFort, Vitalfoto, Zack Frank

Muscular System
National Geographic Creative: QA International; Shutterstock: Africa Studio, Cliparea/Custom Media, design36, Designua, Helena Ohman, Naeblys, Sebastian Kaulitzki, stihii, Valentyna Chukhlyebova

Natural Resources and the Environment
Shutterstock: Adam Gregor, Delpixel, Dennis van der Water, mitchellsk, Olivier Le Queinec, sciencepics, SpaceKris, stocksolutions, Taina Sohlman, visdia, w.g.design, zhu difeng

Natural Selection
Getty Images: Steve Hansen/The LIFE Images Collection; Science Source: Gary Hincks, Jessica Wilson; Shutterstock: CebotariN, Everett Historical, Evikka, Joseph Scott Photography, Tatiana Shepeleva, Wang LiQuang

Natural Wonders in the Sky
National Geographic Creative: Chris Johns; Shutterstock: Designua, fabiodevilla, Francois Arseneault, Mihai Simonia, Pichugin Dmitry, Shin Okamoto, Traveller Martin, Triff

Natural Wonders in the Water
Alamy: jbdodane; Getty Images: Sean Gallup; Minden Pictures: Norbert Wu; NASA Earth Observatory, Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon; National Geographic Creative: Jason Edwards; Newscom: REX/Phil Rees; Shutterstock: Longjourneys, Natursports, Sapsiwai

Natural Wonders of the Earth
Science Source: Javier Trueba/MSF; Shutterstock: Alvov, alysta, Bill Perry, BL Images, ChameleonsEye, Doug Meek, liseykina, Mariusz S. Jurgielewicz, Richard A. McMillin, ronnybas, Tania Zbrodko, Wollertz

Neptune
iStockphoto: W6; NASA: ESA/G. Bacon and M. Estacion (STScI), JPL, JPL/STScI, JPL/USGS; Shutterstock: iryna1, Mopic, reziart, Tristan3D; Wikimedia: Magnus Manske

Nervous System
National Geographic Creative: QA International; Shutterstock: Alila Medical Media, Blamb, BlueRingMedia, Jacky Co, Jeff Thrower, sciencepics, Sebastian Kaulitzki, Tefi

Newton’s 1st Law
Shutterstock: Allen.G, anekopho, Corepics VOF, Designua, Flystock, Georgios Kollidas, Josfor, Odua Images, VectorLifestylepic, Zurijeta

Newton’s 2nd Law
Shutterstock: Alexey Lysenko, Cilppen, Dario Vuksanovic, Digital Storm, Everett Historical, EvgeniiAnd, foto76, tatuin, Yuriy Rudyy

Newton’s 3rd Law
iStockphoto: Bonnie Caton, Entrieri, Everett Historical, Kucher Serhii, mezzotint, Rich Carey

Nonrenewable Resources
Science Source: Spencer Sutton; Shutterstock: Anatoly Tiplyashin, Andrey N. Bannov, ArturNyk, corlaffra, deadmeat243, iurii, Jaromir Chalabala, JVrublevskaya, Matej Kastelic, Olga Miltsova, zhu difeng

Oceans
Newscom: Splash; Shutterstock: divedog, Eugene Kalenkovich, holbox, kaschibo, lynx_v, Rich Carey, Tracey Winholt

Oceans as a Water Source
Shutterstock: Andrea Izzotti, Atlaspix, Designua, fish1715, Incredible Arctic, jukurae

Organs
Shutterstock: Alila Medical Media, bluezace, Designua, disample_stock, joshya, NoPainNoGain, phil Holmes, Pretty Vectors, snegok13, stockshoppe

Parasites
CDC: Blaine Mathison, Dr. Mae Melvin; Dreamstime: Science Pics; Shutterstock: Cosmin Manci, D. Kucharski K. Kucharska, Gallinago_media, Henrik Larsson, IanRedding, Juan Gaertner, Kateryna Kon, Protasov AN, Sergei Primakov

Photosynthesis
Shutterstock: Designua, Ingrid Prats, Kletr, Kokhanchikov, meunierd, Oxygen, snapgalleria

Physical Changes
Shutterstock: Carlos Andre Santos, Darryl Brooks, Darryl Brooks, Food Lovers, kitty, r.classen, ronnybas, Tatsiana Tsyhanova, Titov Nikolai

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
iStockphoto: hartcreations; Shutterstock: bikeriderlondon, Dimedrol68, mikeledray, Reece with a C, Sergey Novikov, stockyimages, Uberstock

Plant Cells
Shutterstock: Designua, Dimarion, Dreamy Girl, ellepigrafica, La Gorda, Milena Moiola, wawritto

Pollution
Shutterstock: fish1715, Geoffrey Kuchera, Huguette Roe, Hung Chung Chih, ittipon, Llona Koeleman, M. Shcherbyna, overcrew, Photographee.eu, Rudy Umans, Sam Chadwick, Undersea

Potential and Kinetic Energy
Shutterstock: Arthur Balitskiy, bikeriderlondon, EpicStockMedia, farbled, Fouad A. Saad, Iaroslav Neliubov, James LePage, KPG_Payless, lightpoet, muratart, Oleksandr Kostiuchenko, REC Stock Footage, wawritto

Properties of Matter
Shutterstock: BlueRingMedia, Designua, Im stocker, Joshua Pedersen, My name is boy, Vadim Sadovski

Radio Waves
Shutterstock: DakotaStudios, Designua, Fouad A. Saad, Francois Arseneault, Ivsanmas, Mauro Carli, Nicku

Rain Forests
Shutterstock: Brandon Alms, Dirk Ercken, Eky Studio, guentermanaus, ImagoPhoto, Martin Mecnarowski, Matt Tilghman, Nature Capture Realfoto, nikitsin.smugmug, Ryan M. Bolton, Salparadis, skelos, STILLFX

Reproductive System
Shutterstock: BlueRingMedia, GD Mohamed, Kim Reinick, koya979, Monkey Business Images, saginbay, Sebastian Kaulitzki, wavebreakmedia

Respiratory System
Shutterstock: Alila Medical Media, BlueRingMedia, Cliparea/Custom Media, decade3d–anatomy online, hxdbzxy, sciencepics

Rock Layers and the Rock Cycle
Science Source: Spencer Sutton; Shutterstock: Doug Lemke, farbled, Fotos593, Greene HD Productions Inc, Lindsay Douglas, Matthijs Wetterauw, Mikhail Nekrasov, Milosz_G, MyImages Micha, Steve Estvanik

Saturn
NASA: GSFC/JPL-Caltech, JPL/Space Science Institute, JPL-Caltech, JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute; Shutterstock: Clara, Elena Korn, MarcelClemens, Mopic, Morphart Creation, photoplotnikov

Savannas
Shutterstock: AndreAnita, Andrzej Kubik, Black Sheep Media, Dudarev Mikhail, Eric Isselee, Flystock, Graeme Shannon, javarman, JaySi, Jo Crebbin, Jorg Hackemann, Natalia Pushchina, Photocreo Michal Bednarek

Sedimentary Rocks
Shutterstock: Aleksandr Pobedimskiy, BarryTuck, Benvalee Onthaworn, Chad Palmer, Eduardo Rivero, Fabio Lamanna, MarcelClemens, Nils Versemann, Robert Adrian Hillman, Snap Happy, sonsam, Wide Lens Films, Yunava1

Skeletal System
Shutterstock: Alexander_P, Blamb, Cliparea/Custom Media, debr22pics, Designua, Kniazeff, La Gorda, NoPainNoGain, Potapov Alexander

Soil
Shutterstock: Denis and Yulia Pogostins, Designua, Elena Arkadova, Everett Historical, Fathur Rahman, Igor Stramyk, Ivan Veselinovic, Ivan Veselinovic, Merkushev Vasiliy, snapgalleria

Solids
Shutterstock: cigdem, hd connelle, Maglara, Maram, Mateusz Fula, phloem, Picsfive, r.classen, Radovan1, Teodora D, Tim UR, Webspark

Sound Energy
Shutterstock: Alila Medical Media, Chris Parypa Photograph, Designua, Fouad A. Saad, Kzenon, Olivier Le Moal, Panaiotidi, Pascal Marchand, solar22, Valentin Valkov

Sound Waves
Shutterstock: Alexander Raths, Alila Medical Media, Black_Diamond, chromatos, Denis Trofimov, Fouad A. Saad, Katerina_S

Space Exploration
NASA: ESA, Goddard Space Flight Center, JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona, JPL-Caltech/University of Wisconsin; Shutterstock: AuntSpray, edobric, Elenarts, Vadim Sadovski, Viacheslav Lopatin; Wikimedia: NASA

Stars and Constellations
iStockphoto: sololos; NASA: ESA/G. Bacon (STScI), ESA/JPL-Caltech; Shutterstock: Dragan Milovanovic, igordabari, MichaelTaylor, sciencepics, shooarts, Traveller Martin, Triff, Yganko, Yoshihiro Miyagi

Streams and Rivers as a Water Source
Shutterstock; 4045, ED Reardon, Frontpage, Galyna Andrushko, Iain Frazer, Igor Jandric, Igor Jandric, Martina I. Meyer, Mikhail Kolesnikov, Miks Mihails Ignats, Rosomak, Sky Light Pictures, Skyward Kick Productions, zlikovec

Taiga
Shutterstock: ArCaLu, Bong, Grigoriy Pil, K19J2, Leonid Ikan, Maksimilian, Nikitin Victor, Secher, Sergei Drozd, TTphoto, YouraPechkin

Tectonic Plates
Capstone Press; Science Source: Planetary Visions Ltd.; Shutterstock: Amy Nichole Harris, Andrea Danti, AuntSpray, Berzina, Designua, K.Narloch-Liberra, Mopic, robin2

Temperate Forests
Shutterstock: Aleksander Bolbot, Ales Liska, Bruce MacQueen, Csehak Szabolcs, Florin Mihai, Matthew Dixon, Stephane Bidouze, Zack Frank

The Milky Way and Other Galaxies
NASA: ESA/The Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)/Hubble Collaboration, ESA/The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), ESA/Z. Levay and R. van der Marel (STScI)/A. Mellinger, Goddard Space Flight Center, JPL-Caltech, NOAO/ESA/The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA); Shutterstock: Albert Barr, Alex Mit, Anastasios71, John A. Davis, Yury Dmitrienko

The Senses
National Geographic Creative: QA International; Shutterstock: Alila Medical Media, Crisan Rosu, Designua, Dmitry Naumov, LaKirr, Peter Hermes Furian, rendix_alextian, snapgalleria, stockshoppe

The Sun
NASA; NASA/Scientific Visualization Studio; Newscom: Kyodo; Shutterstock: Aaron Rutten, Andrey Armyagov, Astrobobo, Danshutter, Ivannn, John T. Takai, Linda Brotkorb, Mahesh Patil, Triff; SOHO (ESA & NASA)

The Water Cycle
National Geographic Creative: QA International; Shutterstock: aekikuis, bikeriderlondon, BW Folsom, Designua, Dreamy Girl, Nina B, topseller, TTphoto, wawritto

Thermal Energy
Shutterstock: Burben, Deyan Georgiev, Evgeny Atamanenko, Ezume Images, Fouad A. Saad, magnetix, Narongsak Nagadhana, Triff

Tissues
National Geographic Creative: QA International; Shutterstock: Alila Medical Media, Blamb, Designua, Dimarion, Juan Gaertner, Meoita, paulaphoto, sciencepics

Tornadoes
Newscom: Cultura/Jason Persoff Stormdoctor; Science Source: Jim Reed; Shutterstock: deepspacedave, Designua, Melanie Metz, Minerva Studio, MIVP, okili77, pzAxe, Sari ONeal, Steven Bourelle

Tsunamis
Alamy: Universal Images Group North America; Getty Images: Marco Garcia; National Geographic Creative: QA International; Newscom: REX/Cameron Laird; Science Source; Shutterstock: Andrea Danti, ChameleonsEye, Christian Vinces, Designua, Just_One_Pic

Tundras
Shutterstock: Adwo, Alex Polo, AndreAnita, Andreas Altenburger, Maksimilian, outdoorsman, Sergey Uryadnikov, Sever180, Tony Campbell, Vladimir Melnik

Uranus
NASA: JPL, JPL/STScI, JPL/USGS, JPL-Caltech, Lawrence Sromovsky, University of Wisconsin-Madison/W.W. Keck Observatory; Shutterstock: Area 6, Everett Art, Georgios Kollidas, Joe Belanger, Mopic, photoplotnikov; Wikimedia: NASA

Venus
ESA; NASA: JPL, JPL-Caltech/ESA, Scientific Visualization Studio; Shutterstock: bart acke, Diego Barucco, Georgios Kollidas, Gordon Galbraith, janez volmajer, LeniKovaleva, MarcelClemens, Mopic, Morphart Creation, Tom Hirtreiter

Viruses
Shutterstock: bissig, Blamb, Christos Georghiou, decade3d–anatomy online, jaddingt, MichaelTaylor, Sebastian Kaulitzki, Yuganov Konstantin

Volcanic Eruptions
Capstone Press; Newscom: World History Archive; Shutterstock: Aleksandar Todorovic, Ami Parikh, Azuzl, Dan Lee, Designua, Dr. Morley Read, Elena Kalistratova, Lee Prince, Pfeiffer, Photovolcanica, sandatlas, Serjio74, S-F, silky, Steve Bower, Vacclav, Webspark

Waves and Their Properties
Shutterstock: Chris Van Lennep Photo, Designua, Fouad A. Saad, Matthew Bartolacci, photoiconix

Weather Patterns
National Geographic Creative: QA International; Shutterstock: Designua, Jakinnboaz, Perfect Lazybones, Shelli Jensen, shooarts, Vibrant Image Studio

Wetlands
Shutterstock: Alita Bobrov, Cummings Entertainment, daizuoxin, Dennis W. Donohue, r.classen, Shackleford-Photography, slowfish, thiraphonthongaram

What Are Forces and Motion?
iStockphoto: Jason Lugo; Shutterstock: bikeriderlondon, BlueRingMedia, Carlos Amarillo, dslaven, Everything, imaged, Kai Mortensen, Keith Publicover, Piccia Neri, Pressmaster, supot phanna, wavebreakmedia

What Is Energy?
Shutterstock: banderlog, gyn9037, Jarous, Monika Gniot, Nadia Cruzova, richard finch, Ruslan Grechka, SpaceKris, Vladimir Nenezic

What Is the Biosphere?
National Geographic Creative: QA International; Shutterstock: Abd. Halim Hadi, Designua, MichaelTaylor3d, NoPainNoGain, Vilainecrevette

What Is the Geosphere?
Science Source: Spencer Sutton; Shutterstock: 3dViz, edobric, John T Takai, Niyazz, XYZ

What Is the Hydrosphere?
Shutterstock: Active Stock, Denis Burdin, Jo Crebbin, Josef Hanus, Kazakova Maryia, Kichigin, snowway, Willyam Bradberry

X-Rays
NASA: CXC/Univ. of Toulouse/M.Bachetti et al; Shutterstock: CWA Studios, Designua, dualstock, Everett Historical, itsmejust, jannoon028, Khafizov Ivan Harisovich, konmesa, Tyler Olson

Bullying
iStockphoto: FatCamera, jamesdeanny sturti; Shutterstock: Lopolo, Monkey Business Images, O Driscoll Imaging, Speedkingz

Community Organizations
iStockphoto/andresr; Shutterstock: Helen Fields Hotelfoxtrot, Jenn Huls, Mila Supinskaya Glashchenko, Monkey Business Images, Peter Titmuss, Rawpixel.com, sirtravelalot, SpeedKingz, Suzanne Tucker

Family Types
Shutterstock: Africa Studio, Andy Dean Photography, Annette Shaff, In The Light Photography, Monkey Business Images, nd3000, szefei

Recycling and the Environment
Shutterstock: Coltty, connel, Evan Lorne, Fedorov Oleksiy, Hugette Roe, leungchopan, mangostock, Ralf Broskvar, sirtravelalot, Syda Productions, Ungnoi Lookjeab

Social Norms and Taboos
iStockphoto/simonkr; Shutterstock: Alena Ozerova, Freedom_Studio, FS Stock, Ivan Sujan, Kamil Macniak, Monkey Business Images, Orange Line Media, Peter Bemik, Stephen Coburn, txking

Volunteering
iStockphoto: asiseeit, fstop123, Shutterstock: ESB Professional, Helen Fields Hotelfoxtrot, JohnnyHabell, oliveromg, Rawpixel.com

Being Ethical
iStockphoto: Fertnig, GoodLifeStudio; Newscom/Dylan Martinez/Reuters; Shutterstock: Cynthia Farmer, Everett Historical, IZF, MidoSemsem, racorn, Rekindle Photos and Video, wavebreakmedia

Creating Personal Goals
Getty Images/Brian Bahr/Stringer; iStockphoto: asiseelt, Highwaystarz-Photography, ViktorCap; Shutterstock: a katz, Jacek Chabraszewski, Joana Lopes, sebra

Forming an Identity
iStockphoto/FatCamera; Shutterstock: Andrii Oleksiienko, Dmytro Vietrov, Monkey Business Images, Rawpixel.com

Making Decisions
Alamy/Jay Bray; iStockphoto/andresr; Shutterstock: Hung Chung Chih, Iakov Filimonov, KinoMasterskaya, michaeljung, Sergey Novikov, wavebreakmedia

Solving Problems
Getty Images/Cris Bouroncle; iStockphoto/asiseelt; Shutterstock: arka38, Everett Historical, knet, Meg Wallace Photography, Pyty, Syda Productions

Understanding Facts and Opinions
Alamy/Graham Prentice; iStockphoto/Yuri_arcurs; Newscom/Shamil Zhumatov/Reuters; Shutterstock: DW labs Incorporated, George Rudy, Georgios Kollidas, motion.pl, Pressmaster, Sylvia sooyoN

ADHD
Getty Images/ITN (video); Science Source; Shutterstock: Andrey_Popov, imtmphoto, Monika Wisniewska, Photographee.eu, Pixelbliss, Suzanne Tucker, tomertu, tomom pukesom

Alzheimer’s Disease
Shutterstock: Alexander Raths, Availablelight, bestjeroen, Diego Cervo, Fresnel, Lighthunter, mickyso, Photographee.eu, sfam_photo, Tashatuvango

Autism
iStockphoto: KatarzynaBialaslewicz, Linda Epstein; Science Source: Amelie Benoit Khakurei, Burger/Phanie, Nancy J. Pierce; Shutterstock: 18percentgrey, Roman Yanushevsky, Stock Market Films, Tatyana Dzemileva

Blindness
iStockphoto/chameleonseye; Science Source: Amelie Benoit Khakurei, Spence Grant; Shutterstock: Alliance, Arciom Lobach, goodluz, Tefi, Tinonina, wavebreakmedia

Cerebral Palsy
Getty Images/ITN (vdeo); Science Source/Disability Images; Shutterstock: anyaivanova, belushi, Jaren Jai Wicklund, Lisa F. Young, Olesia Bikei, Pavel L. Photo and Video, sweetmonster

Cystic Fibrosis
Alamy/dpa picture alliance; Getty Images/ITN (video); iStockphoto/KatarzynaBialaslewicz; Science Source/Monica Schroeder; Shutterstock: Alila Medical Media, Amy Myers, hxdbzxy, Konstantin Kolosov

Deafness
Science Source: Disability Images (video), Veronique Burger; Shutterstock: Capifrutta, dwphotos, Elsa Hoffman, Image Point Fr, Monika Wisniewska, Oleksandr Rybitskiy, pablofdezr

Down Syndrome
Shutterstock: Alila Medical Media, Denis Kuvaev, DGLimages, ESB Professional, Joseph Sohm, karelnoppe, Kopytin Georgy, marcel Jancovic, Monkey Business Images

Dwarfism
Alamy: Archive Pics, Rick Wilking/Reuters, Scott Audette/Reuters; Getty Images: Baltimore Sun, David Mepham-WI (video); Shutterstock: Nolte Lourens, pixelaway, science photo, Tinseltown

Dyslexia
iStockphoto/cloudburst79; Science Source: Science Source, Veronique Burger; Shutterstock: adriaticfoto, Ideya, Image Point Fr, James Sedgemore, Levranii, Monkey Business Images, Syda Productions

Epilepsy
iStockphoto: KatarzynaBialaslewicz, patrickheagney, Pixel_away; Science Source: Alfred Pasieka, BSIP, Dr P. Marazzi, Scott Camazine; Shutterstock: Collin Quinn Lormax, motion.pl

Muscular Dystrophy
Getty Images: Chicago Tribune, Denise Truscello; iStockphoto: nico_65, simonkr; Photo courtesy of Curt Buhl; Science Source: Cecilia Magill, Disability Images, Jean-Paul Chassenet; Shutterstock/Alila Medical Media

Art and Music
Alamy: Madeleine Ratz, National Geographic Creative; Getty Images/Barcroft; Shutterstock: Africa Studio, AQ_taro_neo, Corinna Huter, dmitry_islentev, George Dolgikh, Izian Somai, Marisa Estivill, Markord, Monstar Studio, Pyty, Vladimir Wrangel, wideweb

Clothing
iStockphoto: Bartosz Hadyniak, gorodenkoff; Newscom: Fine Art Images Heritage Images, Glasshouse Images; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Catwalk Photos, Derek Yamashita, GoneWithTheWind, HitManSnr, Korkusung, Leonardo Emiliozzi, Mikhina Tatyana, PRABHAS ROY, Rawpixel.com, THAWIWAT SAE-HENG

Currency
Getty Images/Marc Hoberman; Newscom/akg-images; Shutterstock: Beneda Miroslav, Martin Prague, Maryna Pleshkun, Only Fabrizio, Rick Ray, small1, vinnstock, Vladimir Sazonov, VTT Studio, W. Scott McGill

Education
Alamy/World History Archive; Getty Images: Bettmann, JUNG YEON-JE/Staff, The Lighthouse Film Co, Inc (video), TONY KARMA/Stringer, ullstein bild; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Jannis Tobias Werner, jianbing Lee, Monkey Business Images

Family
Alamy: Art Directors & TRIP, Carol Lee, Novarc Images; Getty Images/Wishing Tree Productions (video); iStockphoto/LeoPatrizi; Shutterstock: ESB Professional, Hans Christiansson, michaeljung, Monkey Business Images; SuperStock/Grant Rooney/age footstock

Food
Shutterstock: Ana del Castillo, Anna_Pustynnikova, Brent Hofacker, DarZel, Dereje, Elsa Hoffmann, Giancarlo Liguori, holbox, Kittipojn Pravallatkul, Leon Rafael, norikko, Prostock-studio, Rawpixel.com, rocharibeiro, SMDSS, Tatiana Brainina

Games
Alamy/Steve Skjold; Getty Images: DEA PICTURE LIBRARY, Jean-Paul Aussenard, YOSHIKAZU TSUNO; iStockphoto/Jesper Elgaard; Shutterstock: CaseyMartin, Corepics VOF, Federica Milella, kaisaya, Karen Sruthers, Live Fire Inc, Monkey Business Images, polkadot_photo, Syda Productions, Tinxi, Zai Di

Governments
Getty Images/The Asahi Shimbun; Newscom/HANDOUT/REUTERS; Shutterstock: Balakate, Burlingham, Erika Cross, Everett Historical, khd, Twocoms, W. Scott McGill

Holidays
Getty Images/Mark Wilson; Shutterstock: ailisa, artcphotos, dreamikon, espies, GTS Productions, JOAT, Nathalie Spellers Ufermann, Pressmaster, Raymond Yong, Suriya99, Tom Wang, videohouse

Homes
Getty Images: Andrew Sacks (video), SEA/G.DAGLI ORTI; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Aleksandar Todorovic, alexmisu, Atosan, Breadmaker, Dennis W. Donohue, hxdbzxy, Iakov Filimonov, Kekyalyaynen, Luigi Trevisi, Lukasz Janyst, Magdanatka, Pascal RATEAU, Sergii Rudiuk, vaalaa, Verena Matthew

Languages and Writing
Alamy: Ben Molyneux, CBW; iStockphoto/GlobalStock; Shutterstock: adriaticfoto, Claudio Divizia, CREATISTA, Fedor Selivanov, Fee Jemay, Golden, gpointstudio, Kotomiti Okuma, Sophy Ru

Religions and Traditions
Shutterstock: Antonio Gravante, Art Stocker, beer worawut, Brian Kinney, Donna Ellen Coleman, Elenarts, Fedyaeva Maria, feliks, Leila Ablyazova, leolintang, Napalai Studio, Sergii Rudiuk, Toa55, Volkov Mikhail

Transportation
Shutterstock: Agnieszka Skalska, Amos Rafaeli, Christian Lagerek, Dave Turner, Ewais, GROGL, Nickolay Khoroshkov, Olaf Speier, Pavel Nesvadba, riopatuca, Rudmer Zwerver, S-F, Smitry Kalinovsky, TonyV3112, Trong Nguyen, William Perugini

Disease
Shutterstock: 3Dalia, aslysun, decade3d-anatomy online, Everett Historical, Javier Regueiro, MAGNIFIER, Peteri, racorn, Sirirat, Supoj Pongpancharoen, Surapol Usanakul, VGstockstudio

Environment
Alamy: Newzulu, Nigel Hicks, picturesbyrob; Getty Images/Bryan Chan; Shutterstock: Designua, keantian, Longjourneys, Mike Shooter, Ruslan Gusev, Sawat Banyenngam, Sunflowerey, testing, Victor Lauer

Genocide
Shutterstock: Everett Historical, GiuseppeCrimeni, Goran Bogicevic, Northfoto, Sophie Lenoir, Veni Vidi Vici

Human Rights
Getty Images/Broderick/Stringer; Shutterstock: Charles Haire, Foto593, George Allen Penton, karelnoppe, Marco Crupi, Rick Ray, Sadik Gulec, StanislavBeloglazov, structuresxx

Natural Disasters
Getty Images: ANDREW HOLBROOKE, Barcroft Media, Bernard Weil, FREDERIC J. BROWN, JIM WATSON, NurPhoto, Steve Larson; Science Source: Gary Hincks, Images and Volcans, Peter Menzel; Shutterstock: ArtbeatsEXPRESS, Christian.dk, Designua, Harvepino, Minerva Studio, Naeblys, Paco Espinoza

Conflict over Natural Resources
Getty Images/Olivier Polet; iStockphoto/yoh4nn; Newscom: Pictures From History, TUGELA RIDLEY/EPA; Shutterstock: Anthony Berenyi, Danielle Baslderas, DrimaFilm, Everett Historical, iurii, Jordi C, Lee Prince, longtaildog, robertonencini, VideoFort

Poverty
Newscom: John Alevroyiannis/Mirrorpix, Polaris; Shutterstock: ART production, creativemarc, GagliardiImages, Joseph Sohm, Mettus, Monkey Business Images, nomadvideo, oatjo, Richard Cavalleri, rm

Trade
Alamy: Newzulu, Paul Doyle, Richard Wareham Fotografie; iStockphoto: agustavop, andresr; Shutterstock: AYA images, EQRoy, Faraways, Fotokostic, giddyuptimelapse, Joseph Sohm, kosolovskyy, Lisa F. Young, Rainer Plendi, Sailom, Salvador Aznar, StevenK, vinnstock, WindVector

Creating a Budget
Shutterstock: Andrey_Popov, Casper 1774 Studio, Dmitry Kalinovsky, Iryna Tiumentseva, JohnKwan, pikselstock, Rawpixel.com, Ryman, Syda Productions

Earning Money
Glow Images/Hero Images; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Andrey_Popov, Jamie Hooper, Josh randall, Richard A. McGuirk, tsyhun, VIA films, wavebreakmedia

Philanthropy
Shutterstock: a katz, Helen Fields Hotelfoxtrot, Joseph Sohm, lembi, Monkey Business Image, Pongsatorn Singnoy, Syda Productions, wavebreakmedia

Saving Money
iStockphoto/vgajic; Shutterstock: Africa Studio, Bart Sadowski, Christina Richards, Corepics VOF, Darko Zelijkovic, designer491, Iarry1235, Kemal Taner, suksom, Trong Nguyen

Spending Money
Shutterstock: Billion Photos, dean bertoncelj, Everett Historical, Ivelin Radkov, MACKAY PHOTOGRAPHY, LLC, Milkovasa, Rawpixel.com, Tyler Olson, Uberstock

Supply and Demand
iStockphoto/zoranm; Shutterstock: 06photo, Andrey Sosr, Dusit, panpote, tcly, Tyler Olson, Yomka

Understanding Credit
Shutterstock: Andrey_Popov, Brian A. Jackson, Burlingham, Casper1774 Studio, goodluz, Jacob Lund, Marcos Mesa Sam Wordley, motion.pl, Olleg, Stokkete

What is a Free Market System?
Getty Images/Print Collector; Shutterstock: 06photo, Alison Hancock, Bankoo, Dan_Jesperson, George Rudy, Martin Good, Monkey Business Images, Tyler Olson

Anthropology
Alamy/National Geographic Creative; Getty Images/Sky News/Film Image Partner (video); Science Source: Pascal Goetgheluck, Peter Menzel; Shutterstock: Celiafoto, CHAINFOTO24, Jacob Lund, Jannarong, Microgen, Sergey Uryadnikov, Steve Bower

Civics and Political Science
Alamy: Marmaduke St. John, Zuma Press; iStockphoto: asiseelt, Iabsas; Shutterstock: claudia veja images, Iakov Filimonov, Jose Gil, Milles Studio, Monkey Business Images, Rick Ray

Communications
Shutterstock: Dmitry Pichugin, michaeljung, Mila Supinskaya Glashchenko, Monkey Business Images, oliveromg, Sasa Prudkov, smolaw, Stock Footage Inc, stockphoto mania

Economics and Finance
Shutterstock: Andrey_Popov, g-stockstudio, Mark Van Scyoc, Multifocus, Natee K. Jinakum, Olivier Le Queinec, Rawpixel.com, Robert Przybysz

Geography
Alamy: Mark Gibson, Steve Morgan; Getty Images/The Washington Post; Shutterstock: Alison Hancock, Arina P Habich, aSuruwataRi, CandyBox Images, Lisa F. Young, Mike Pellinni, nostal6ie, Rawpixel.com, Rick Ray, Toa55

History
Getty Images” Chris Hondros, Frazer Harrison; iStockphoto/chameleonseye; Newscom/ALEX GRIMM/REUTERS; Shutterstock: Agenturfotografin, Gherzak, Monkey Business Images, SkyworksRF, StockLite

Law
Alamy/Enigma; Getty Images: Mark Wilson, Yellow Dog Productions Inc (video); Shutterstock: bikeriderlondon, Everett Historical, everything possible, Galiullin Ruslan, GaudiLab, gwb, jsp, Steven Frame, wavebreakmedia

Psychology
Getty Images/ullstein bild; iStockphoto: FatCamera, KatarzynaBialaslewicz; Science Source/Thierry Berrod, Mona Lisa Production; Shutterstock: CandyBox Images, Magic mine, Olimpik, Photographee.eu, Uber Images, wavebreakmedia

Sociology
iStockphoto/Luka Lajst; Shutterstock: A and N photography, Aizuddin Saad, Alex Brylov, Helen Fields Hotelfoxtrot, Jacob Lund, Monkey Business Images, sirtravelalot

Africa
Shutterstock: Andrzej Kubik, Bill Kret, Dmitry Eagle Orlav, ekler, Elenarts, Fabio Lamanna, Frontpage, Ivoha, Olga Grinblat, Orhan Cam, paulijuppi, Pichugin Dmitry, Shinelu, TravelNerd, tusharkoley, Villiers Steyn

Antarctica
Newscom/akg-images; Shutterstock: Andreea Dragomir, bikeriderlondon, Designua, Dmytro Pylypenko, Elenarts, fivepointsix, Foto Mous, Mariusz Potocki, Sergey Tarasenko; Superstock/Biosphoto

Asia
Shutterstock: Abdreas Hie, anekoho, Anton Jankovoy, chuyuss, Cuiphoto, dibrova, Elenarts, ESB Professional, Katvic, Ondrej Prosicky, Sasapee, Sean Pavone, stephen Rudolph, TripDeeDee Photo, zhuda

Australia
Shutterstock: Alizada Studios, AustraliaCamer, Byelikova Oksana, Chris Watson, Elenarts, gaborbasch, Kanchana Sukhatip, Martin Maun, N Mrtgh, NathanAN, okili77, Peter Hermes Furian, siwawut, zstock

Europe
Shutterstock: A_Lesik, Alexandru Logel, Anna Maksimyuk, Blue Tuna Ltd, blutack, Elenarts, Krzyzak, MarinaDa, pcruciatti, PhotocechCZ, Seqoya, Shaiith, SuranyiMate, Viacheslav Lopatin

North America
Shutterstock: Aleksandar Todorovic, Elenarts, Galyna Andrushko, Hank Shiffman, Jess Kraft, Kamira, MarkVanDykePhotography, Martin M303, NaturesMomentsuk, Pedro Helder Pinheiro, Photo Image, Spotmatik Ltd, View Apart, Vivid Pixels, West Coast Scapes

South America
Shutterstock: Alice Nerr, Elenarts, Fotos593, Gabriel Rojo, IDAK, Maciej Bledowski, marchello74, Marcos Amend, natkom, Paulo Vilela, sunsinger, Tacio Philip Sansonovski, Travel Stock, Vitoriano Junior, vitormarigo

Appalachian Mountains
Shutterstock: alslutsky, Colorapt Media, Dave Allen Photography, Debbie Steinhausser, Designua, ESB Professional, Jon Bilous, Konstantin L, MarkVanDykePhotography, Paul Tessier; Wikimedia/USGS

Grand Canyon
iStockphoto/desertsolitaire; Shutterstock: Aneese, Anton_Ivanov, Greene HD Productions Inc, Jiri Foltyn, Jorg Hackemann, Mike Buchheit, prochasson Frederic, Skreidzeleu, sumikophoto

Great Lakes
Getty Images/UniversalImagesGroup; iStockphoto/estt; Newscom/KINA/Bertus Webbink; Shutterstock: Ivan Cholakov, JJMedia, MariskaVegter, Nagel Photography, Rainer Lesniewski, Roman Babakin, Thomas Barrat, Tom Reichner, Xin Qiu

Great Salt Lake
Alamy/Don Despain; Newscom/J.C. Butter Glasshouse Images; North Wid Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Andrew Zarivny, Boykov, Dennis W Donohue, Johnny Adolphson, Marco Regalia, Napat, Neil Burton, R.L.Hausdorf, Wesley Aston

Mississippi River
Newscom: ERIK S. LESSER/EPA, Satellite and Aerial Images/Universal Images Group; North Wind Picture Archives; Science Source/Byron Jorjorian; Shutterstock: Gerald Marella, kwan tse, Orhan Cam, Photo Image, Rainer Lesniewski, Rick Ray, Tomaz Kunst

Niagara Falls
iStockphoto/Orchidpoet; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Chawalit Siwaborwornwattana, CPQ, FotoRequest, Joao Virissimo, jorome, Nick Doronin, Pete Spiro, Skyward Kick Productions

Rio Grande
Alamy/Jim West; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Felix Mizioznikov, Hank Shiffman, kojihirano, Kristy Swanson, Linda Moon, Rainer Lesniewski, Robert Saitta, Tamara Stanaland

Rocky Mountains
iStockphoto/bfophoto; North Wind Picture Archives; Science Source/Henning Dalhoff; Shutterstock: ArtBitz, Constantine Androsoff, f11photo, Kris Wiktor, marekuliasz, Nature Art, Ryan DeBerardinis, welcomia

Natural and Human-Made Boundaries
Shutterstock: Alxcrs, Filipe Frazao, Kopteva Marina, Lester Balajadia, pavalena, Rainer Lesniewski, UnknownLatitude Images, Volina, zol studios

Population Concentrations
Alamy/Maxime Dube; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Anton Balazh, blvdone, chuyuss, Cris Foto, Denis Saragionvski, Dmitry Kalinovsky, dnaveh, Everything possible, eXpose, Kenneth Sponsler, photo.ua, Robert Hoetink, Simon Dannhauer

Reading Maps
Getty Images/Martin Lisius; Shutterstock: Andrey Armyagov, ekler, Globe Turner, Leremy, Long Quattro, Nomad_soul, NoPainNoGain, Peteri, Pincasso, satoja satuja

State Capitals
Alamy: Catherine Brown, Franck Fotos, RGB Ventures/Superstock, Stillman Rogers; Getty Images: Education Images, Raymond Gehman; iStockphoto/sestevens; Newscom/Andre Jenny Stock Connection Worldwide; Shutterstock: Ace Diamond, aceshot1, Action Sports Photography, Allen.G, Andrw Zarivny, Aneta Waberska, B Calkins, Charles Knowles, EQRoy, Erika J. Mitchell, ESB Professional, Everett Historical, f11photo, Ffooter, Fotoluminate LLC, Guillermo Olaizola, Henryk Sadura, JPL Designs, Ken Wolter, Kushal Bose, Lincoln Rogers, LynnMedia, Mark Skainy, Mindy Bockewitz, Nagel Photography, Nick Fox, Sailbal Ghosh, Sean Pavone, Songquan Deng, StudioOneNine, Sue Smith, Suzanne Tucker, Trong Nguyen

Global Communication
Shutterstock: Bloomicon, Everett Historical, Gunner Pippel, Haywire Media, Monika Wisniewska, Photographee.eu, Rawpixel.com, Spotmatick Ltd

Cameras
Newscom/Oxford Science Archive Heritage Images; Science Source/Jessica Wilson (video); Shutterstock: Aila Images, Andrew Buckin, Darren Baker, Designua, Everett Historical, Harvepino, RTimages, Samrith Na Lumpoon

Cars
Getty Images: Bettmann, Hulton Archive, PhotoQuest, Science and Society Picture Library, Three Lions; Newscom/Hennessey/Splash News; Shutterstock: Action Sports Photography, Elzbieta Sekowska, Everett Historical, LanaElcova, Mino Surkala, Rick Ray, Scharfsinn

Computers
Getty Images/Science and Society Picture Library; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Patty Chan, Rawpixel.com, sheyno, Timofeev Vladimir, wavebreakmedia, Ye Liew

Medicine
Getty Images/Al Fenn; Science Source; Shutterstock: adike, adriaticfoto, Aleksandar Karanov, Everett Historical, Ezume Images, UGREEN 3S

Printers
Getty Images: Evening Standard, Mirrorpix; Science Source/British Library; Shutterstock: asharkyu, Everett Historical, FabrikaSimf, Fedor Selivanov, Nirat.pix, science photo, WUTTISAK PROMCHOO

Telephones
Getty Images/George Rinhart; Glow Images/Janie Airey; Science Source/Bildagentur-online/Tschanz; Shutterstock: Alila Medical Media, Denys Prykhodov, Everett Historical, guteksk7, LDprod, POM POM, Rick Ray

Internet Publishing
Shutterstock: Africa Studio, Diego Cervo, Georgejmclittle, Jeramey Lende, MaxxiGo, mmkarabella, Monkey Business Images, SpeedKingz, welcomia

Online Safety
Shutterstock: Blend Images, Cefo design, Chinnapong, JMiks, oliveromg, Rawpixel.com, Ronnachai Palas, SpeedKingz, wavebreakmedia

What is the Internet?
Getty Images: MIGUEL RIOPA, Science and Society Picture Library; Shutterstock: beboy, DDCora, Denys Prykhodov, ESB Professional, Georgejmclittle, Has-Joachim Roy, Inara Prusakova, nmedia, Rawpixel.com

Executive Branch
Getty Images: Bloomberg, Buyenlarge, Chip Somedevilla, Hearst Newsreel (video), Mark Wilson, TIBBON/AFP; Shutterstock: Joseph Sohm, Orhan Cam

Judicial Branch
Getty Images: Bettmann, Image Works, Yellow Dog Productions Inc (video); iStockphoto: Image Source, RichLegg; Shutterstock: eurobanks, Sea Pavone, Victor Moussa

Legislative Branch
Alamy/DOD Photo; Getty Images: Drew Angerer, FedNet (video), MCT; Newscom/Staff KRT; Shutterstock: Ferhat, Kamira, Roman Babakin

Understanding Checks and Balances
Getty Images: Alex Wong, FedNet (video), JIM WATSON; Shutterstock: Kristi Blokhin, Andrey_Popov, Angel Soler Gollonet, Joseph Sohm, JPL Designs

Citizen Responsibilities
iStockphoto/josephhgruber; Shutterstock: Africa Studio, bikeriderlondon, Burlingham, Diego G Diaz, Everett Historical, KieferPix, Pamela Au, Photographee.eu, Rick Ray, Syda Productions

Immigration
Getty Images/Historical; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Marzolino, Rena Schild, Rick Ray

Federal Government
Alamy: Media Punch Inc, Scott J. Ferrell/Congressional Quarterly, Stock Connection Blue, Wiskerke; Getty Images: Alex Wong, JIM WATSON, Onyx Media, Lic-Footage; Newscom/Olivier Douliery/SIPA; Shutterstock: Angel Soler Gollonet, Orhan Cam, Steven Frame

State Government
Alamy/ZUMA Press Inc; Getty Images: Christopher Capozziello/Stringer, Getty Images; Shutterstock: amadeustx, CrackerClips Stock Media, Fotoluminate LLC, Juli Hansen, koya979, RRuntsch, welcomia

Local Government
iStockphoto/Smileus; Shutterstock: Barry Blackburn, Cary Kalscheuer, ChameleonsEye, Dominick Jr, Frank Merfort, ND700, Ocean Image Photography, stock_photo_world, stockelements

Abraham Lincoln
North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Rick Ray

Dwight Eisenhower
Getty Images: Library of Congress, PhotoQuest; Newscom: akg-images, Everett Collection, Glasshouse Images, National Archives/MCT, U.S. Army via CNP; Shutterstock/Rick Ray

Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Alamy/Everett Collection Historical; Newscom: akg-images, Everett Collection, Ingram Publishing; Shutterstock/Rick Ray

George Washington
Alamy/Pictorial Press; Getty Images/Smithsonian (video); Newscom: akg-images, Everett Collection; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Everett Historical-Art, Victorian Traditions

John F. Kennedy
Getty Images: Bettmann, Corbis Historical, Historical, Hulton Archive, Keystone/Staff, Stringer; Newscom: CNP/AdMedia, CNP/AdMedia/SIPA, Robert Knudsen/dpa/picture-alliance; Shutterstock/Rick Ray

Theodore Roosevelt
Getty Images/Smith Collection/Gado/Contributor; Newscom: Everett Collection, The Print Collector Heritage Images; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Rick Ray, Zack Frank

Thomas Jefferson
Newscom: Active Museum/Le Pictorium, Album/Prisma, Glasshouse Images; North Wind Picture Archive; Shutterstock: Chris DeRidder and Hans VandenNieuwendij, Daniel M. Silva, Everett Historical, Jess Kraft, Steve Heap

Ulysses S. Grant
Getty Images: Heritage Images/Contributor, Interim Archives, MPI/Stringer; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Joe Ravi, John Wollwerth, Rick Ray

Discovering America
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American Colonies
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Revolutionary War
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Westward Expansion
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Civil War
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Industrial Revolution
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The US in World War I
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The US in World War II
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20th Century Social Movements
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Current Events
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Articles of Confederation
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The Bill of Rights
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The 13th Amendment
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The 19th Amendment
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The US Constitution
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Declaration of Independence
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Emancipation Proclamation
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Magna Carta
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Virginia Plan
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History of National Celebrations
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Susan B Anthony
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Clara Barton
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Cesar Chavez
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Benjamin Franklin
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Langston Hughes
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Iroquois Confederacy
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Rosa Parks
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Sacagawea
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Understanding Timelines
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Arlington National Cemetery
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Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell
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Library of Congress
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Lincoln Memorial
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Mount Rushmore
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State of Liberty
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Washington Monument
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The White House
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American Flag
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Bald Eagle
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Pledge of Allegiance
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Star-Spangled Banner
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Uncle Sam
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PGN Social Studies Quotations

20th Century Social Movements, slide 1: Rutgers. "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions." The Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony Papers Project. Aug. 2010. 27 July 2017. http://ecssba.rutgers.edu/docs/seneca.html

20th Century Social Movements, slide 6: "Brown v. Board of Education (1954)." Our Documents. 27 July 2017. https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false&doc=87

Abraham Lincoln, slide 4:  Peoria Speech, October 16, 1854." National Park Service. 10 April 2015. 27 July 2017. https://www.nps.gov/liho/learn/historyculture/peoriaspeech.htm

Abraham Lincoln, slide 5: "We Must Not Be Enemies." Library of Congress. 27 July 2017. https://www.loc.gov/wiseguide/mar04/enemies.html

Abraham Lincoln, slide 6: Stephen M. Archer. "Booth, John Wilkes." American National Biography Online. Feb. 2000. 27 July 2017. http://www.anb.org/articles/04/04-01210.html

American Flag, slide 2: "The History of the Stars and Stripes." USA.gov. 27 July 2017. https://publications.usa.gov/epublications/ourflag/history1.htm

American Flag, slide 4: "Address on Flag Day June 14, 1917." The American Presidency Project. 27 July 2017. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65400

Art & Music: Williard E. Misfeldt. "Dalí, Salvador." World Book Advanced. 2 March 2017. http://www.worldbookonline.com/advanced/article?id=ar146940

Bald Eagle: "Presidents Kennedy's Bald Eagle Pledge." John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. 27 July 2017. https://www.jfklibrary.org/Research/Research-Aids/Ready-Reference/JFK-Fast-Facts/Appeal-Bald-eagle.aspx

Benjamin Franklin: “Benjamin Franklin: The Writer.” America’s Library. 27 July 2017. http://www.americaslibrary.gov/aa/franklinb/aa_franklinb_writer_3.html

Civil War, slide 3: "Sherman's March." History.com. 27 July 2017. www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/shermans-march

Civil War, slide 4: "Stonewall Jackson." History.com. 27 July 2017. www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/stonewall-jackson

Civil War, slide 6: "The Gettysburg Address." Abraham Lincoln Online. 27 July 2017. http://www.abrahamlincolnonline.org/lincoln/speeches/gettysburg.htm

Clara Barton: "Clara Barton (The Angel of the Battlefield)." The Ohio State University. 27 July 2017. https://ehistory.osu.edu/biographies/clara-barton-angel-battlefield

Creating Personal Goals: "Michael Jordan Didn't Make Varsity—at First." Newsweek. 17 Oct. 2015. 27 July 2017. http://www.newsweek.com/missing-cut-382954

Current Events: Dallon Christensen. "'Those Who Fail to Learn from History Are Doomed to Repeat It.' Sir Winston Churchill." WhiteBoard. 27 July 2017. http://www.whiteboardbusiness.com/those-who-fail-to-learn-from-history-are-doomed-to-repeat-it-sir-winston-churchill/

Declaration of Independence: "Epitaphs." Library of Congress. 27 July 2017. https://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/connections/thomas-jefferson/langarts5.html

Dwight Eisenhower, slide 4: EISENHOWER'S ORDER OF THE DAY UPON THE INVASION OF NORMANDY, JUNE 6, 1944. The National D-Day Memorial. 27 July 2017. https://www.dday.org/history/d-day-the-invasion/the-leadership.html

Dwight Eisenhower, slide 5, quote 1: Jim Newton. Eisenhower: The White House Years. New York: Random House Inc., 2011, p. 206.

Dwight Eisenhower, slide 5, quote 2: Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, Museum and Boyhood Home. 27 July 2017. https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=90&page=transcript

Emancipation Proclamation: Zach Klitzman. "Black Reaction to the Emancipation Proclamation." President Lincoln's Cottage. 22 Feb. 2013. 27 July 2017. http://www.lincolncottage.org/black-reaction-to-the-emancipation-proclamation/

Federal Government, slide 4: "The Oath of Office." National Museum of American History. 27 July 2017. http://americanhistory.si.edu/presidency/1b2.html

Federal Government, slide 6: "Brown v. Board of Education (1954)." Our Documents. 27 July 2017. https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false&doc=87

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, slide 2: Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns. "The Roosevelts: An Intimate History." New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014. 27 July 2017. Source

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, slide 4: "Franklin D. Roosevelt 131 - Address Accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago." The American Presidency Project. 27 July 2017. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=75174

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, slide 5: "FDR's First Inaugural Address Declaring 'War' on the Great Depression." National Archives. 27 July 2017. https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/fdr-inaugural

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, slide 6: "Franklin D. Roosevelt 154 – Fireside Chat." The American Presidency Project. 27 July 2017. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=15917

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, slide 7: "Speech by Franklin D. Roosevelt, New York (Transcript)." Library of Congress. 27 July 2017. https://www.loc.gov/resource/afc1986022.afc1986022_ms2201/?st=text

George Washington, slide 1: "First in War, First in Peace, and First in the Hearts of His Countrymen." George Washington's Mount Vernon. 27 July 2017. http://www.mountvernon.org/digital-encyclopedia/article/first-in-war-first-in-peace-and-first-in-the-hearts-of-his-countrymen/

George Washington, slide 2: "Cherry Tree Myth" George Washington's Mount Vernon. 27 July 2017. http://www.mountvernon.org/digital-encyclopedia/article/cherry-tree-myth/

Grand Canyon: "Grand Canyon." National Park Service. 6 June 2013. 27 July 2017. https://www.nps.gov/grca/learn/news/grand-canyon-national-park-presents-living-history-performance-of-president-theodore-roosevelt.htm

Great Salt Lake: "Utah's Great Salt Lake is Disappearing, According to Study." The Weather Company.10 March 2016. 27 July 2017. https://weather.com/science/environment/news/great-salt-lake-drying-up

Human Rights: "Qatar 2022: 'Forced Labour' at World Cup Stadium." BBC News. 31 March 2016. 27 July 2017. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-35931031

Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell, slide 1: "The Liberty Bell." National Park Service. 27 July 2017. https://www.nps.gov/inde/learn/historyculture/stories-libertybell.htm

Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell, slide 2: Ibid.

Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell, slide 4: Ibid.

Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell, slide 6: Richard Dunbar. Philadelphia. Florence, Italy: Casa Editrice Bonechi, p. 10.

Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell, slide 7: "Founding Father." Twin Cities Public Television. 27 July 2017. http://www.pbs.org/benfranklin/l3_citizen_founding.html

Industrial Revolution: "Samuel Slater." PBS. 27 July 2017. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/slater_hi.html

John F. Kennedy, slide 1: "'Ask Not...': JFK's Words Still Inspire 50 Years Later." NPR. 11 Jan. 2011. 27 July 2017. http://www.npr.org/2011/01/18/133018777/jfks-inaugural-speech-still-inspires-50-years-later

John F. Kennedy, slide 2: "John F. Kennedy Speeches." John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. 27 July 2017. https://www.jfklibrary.org/Research/Research-Aids/JFK-Speeches/Civil-Rights-Radio-and-Television-Report_19630611.aspx

Law: "Sumer." Ancient History Encyclopedia. 28 April 2011. 27 July 2017. http://www.ancient.eu/sumer/

Library of Congress, slide 1: "History of the Library." Library of Congress. 27 July 2017. https://www.loc.gov/about/history-of-the-library/

Library of Congress, slide 6: "On These Walls Inscriptions and Quotations in the Buildings of the Library of Congress." Library of Congress. 27 July 2017. http://www.loc.gov/loc/walls/madison.html

Lincoln Memorial, slide 4: "90th Anniversary of the Dedication of the Lincoln Memorial." National Park Service. 27 July 2017. https://www.nps.gov/nama/blogs/90th-Anniversary-of-the-Dedication-of-the-Lincoln-Memorial.htm

Lincoln Memorial, slide 6: “Lincoln Memorial Commission.” Lincoln Financial Foundation Collection. 27 July 2017. https://archive.org/details/inthistempleasin00unit

Magna Carta: "Magna Carta story illuminated by discovery of medieval poem." The Guardian. 27 November 2014. 27 July 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2014/nov/27/magna-carta-runnymede-melrose-chronicle

Mount Rushmore, slide 3: John Taliaferro. "Great White Fathers: The Story of the Obsessive Quest to Create Mount Rushmore." PublicAffairs: New York, 2002, p. 343.

Mount Rushmore, slide 4: "The History Lesson of Mount Rushmore." Step by Step. 27 July 2017. http://www.stepbystep.com/The-History-Lesson-of-Mount-Rushmore-132198/

Mount Rushmore, slide 6: Gutzon Borglum. "Geologic Forces." National Park Service. 27 July 2017. https://www.nps.gov/moru/planyourvisit/upload/geologic_forces2.pdf

Philanthropy: "About Us." Rockefeller Foundation. 27 July 2017. https://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/about-us/

Pledge of Allegiance, slide 1: "The Pledge of Allegiance." U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. 27 July 2017. https://www.va.gov/opa/publications/celebrate/pledge.pdf

Pledge of Allegiance, slide 2, quote 1: "Under God: The Evolution of the Pledge of Allegiance." HistoryNet. 27 July 2017. http://www.historynet.com/god-evolution-pledge-allegiance.htm

Pledge of Allegiance, slide 2, quote 2:"The Man Who Wrote the Pledge of Allegiance." Smithsonian Magazine. Nov. 2003. 27 July 2017. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-man-who-wrote-the-pledge-of-allegiance-93907224/

Revolutionary War: "What Was the 'Shot Heard Round the World?'" History.com. 22 Jan. 2015. 27 July 2017. http://www.history.com/news/ask-history/what-was-the-shot-heard-round-the-world

Rosa Parks: "Rosa Parks Arrested." Library of Congress. 27 July 2017. https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/december-01

Sacagawea: James P. Ronda. "Lewis & Clark Among the Indians Appendix: A Note on Sacagawea." University of Nebraska PressLincoln and London. 1984. 27 July 2017. https://lewisandclarkjournals.unl.edu/item/lc.sup.ronda.01.appendix#ln1103

Solving Problems: Richard Langworth. Churchill By Himself. The Definitive Collection of Quotes. New York: PublicAffairs, 2011, p. 525.

Star-Spangled Banner, slide 1: "The U.S. National Anthem." U.S. Army. 27 July 2017. http://www.music.army.mil/music/nationalanthem/

Star-Spangled Banner, slide 2: "Reading 2: Francis Scott Key and the Writing of 'The Star-Spangled Banner.'" National Park Service. 27 July 2017. https://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/137fomc/137facts2.htm

Statue of Liberty, slide 2: "Engineering, Construction, and Crossing the Atlantic." The Statue of Liberty – Ellis Island Foundation Inc. 27 July 2017. http://www.libertyellisfoundation.org/statue-history

Statue of Liberty, slide 6: "The New Colossus." National Park Service. 27 July 2017. https://www.nps.gov/stli/learn/historyculture/colossus.htm

Susan B. Anthony, slide 6: "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774–1875." The Library of Congress. 27 July 2017. https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llsl&fileName=014/llsl014.db&recNum=389

Susan B. Anthony, slide 7: "The Women's Suffrage Movement." National Susan B. Anthony House & Museum. 2013. 27 July 2017. http://susanbanthonyhouse.org/her-story/suffrage-movement.php

The Thirteenth Amendment: Christopher Klein. "Congress Passes 13th Amendment, 150 Years Ago." History. 20 Jan. 2015. 27 July 2017. http://www.history.com/news/congress-passes-13th-amendment-150-years-ago

Theodore Roosevelt, slide 2, quote 1: John A. Gable. "Roosevelt, Theodore." World Book Advanced. 27 July 2017. http://www.worldbookonline.com/advanced/article?id=ar474860&st=roosevelt,%20theodore&gr=Welcome+to+World+Book%21

Theodore Roosevelt, slide 2, quote 2: "Theodore Roosevelt, Sr." National Park Service. 26 February 2015. 27 July 2017. https://www.nps.gov/thrb/learn/historyculture/theodorerooseveltsr.htm

Theodore Roosevelt, slide 2, quote 3:"Quotations from the speeches and other works of Theodore Roosevelt." Theodore Roosevelt Association. 27 July 2017. Source Link

Theodore Roosevelt, slide 6: "Where It All Started: Theodore Roosevelt National Park." Discovering Adventure. 16 Oct. 2015. 27 July 2017. https://sites.psu.edu/gorgasnationalparks/2015/10/16/where-it-all-started-theodore-roosevelt-national-park/

Theodore Roosevelt, slide 7: Joseph R. Ornig. "My Last Chance to Be a Boy: Theodore Roosevelt's South American Expedition of 1913 to 1914." Louisiana State University Press: Baton Rouge, 1994, page 3.

Thomas Jefferson, slide 4: "The Declaration of Independence." UShistory.org. 27 July 2017. http://www.ushistory.org/DECLARATION/document/

Thomas Jefferson, slide 6: "The Embargo of 1807." Digital History. 27 July 2017. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=2986

U.S. Constitution: "Preamble." Cornell Law School. 27 July 2017. https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/preamble

Ulysses S. Grant, slide 2: "Ulysses S. Grant's Reflections on the War." Smithsonian Source. 27 March 2017. http://www.smithsoniansource.org/display/primarysource/viewdetails.aspx?PrimarySourceId=1047

Ulysses S. Grant, slide 4, quote 1: Brooks D. Simpson. Ulysses S. Grant: Triumph over Adversity. Zenith Press: Minneapolis, 2014, p. 79.

Ulysses S. Grant, slide 4, quote 2: "Battle of Fort Donelson." Britannica. 27 July 2017. http://kids.britannica.com/oscar/article-9030913

Ulysses S. Grant, slide 4, quote 3: "U.S. Grant: Warrior (2011)." PBS. 27 July 2017. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/transcript/usgrant-transcript/

Ulysses S. Grant, slide 7: Edward J. Blum and W Scott Poole. Vale of Tears: New Essays on Religion and Reconstruction. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 2005, p. 227.

Uncle Sam, slide 4, quote 1: "I Want You Poster." Smithsonian National Museum of American History. 27 July 2017. http://amhistory.si.edu/militaryhistory/collection/object.asp?ID=548

Uncle Sam, slide 4, quote 2: "The Most Famous Poster." Library of Congress. 27 July 2017. https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm015.html

Uncle Sam, slide 4, quote 3: "Britons. Join Your Country's Army!" Imperial War Museums. 27 July 2017. http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/16577

Washington Monument, slide 6: Jonas Viles, ed. Letters and Addresses of George Washington. The Unit Book Publishing Company: New York, 1908, p. 416.

Washington Monument, slide 7: "History & Culture." National Park Service. 27 July 2017. https://www.nps.gov/wamo/learn/historyculture/index.htm

PGN Biographies 2018 release photo credits

Ada Lovelace

Alamy/Park Dale; Getty Images: Bettmann, DEA/V.PIROZZI, ITN(video); Science Source: British Library, New York Public Library

Adolf Hitler

Getty Images: Archive Film:Editorical (video), Popperfoto, Stringer/Hulton Archive, ullstein bild Dtl.; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, GiuseppeCrimeni, Roman Nerud

Albert Einstein

Getty Images: Alfred Eisenstaedt, Bettmann, Film Audio Services-Footage (video), Hulton Archive, Print Collector, Science & Society Picture Library, ullstein bild Dtl; Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Divison

Alexander Graham Bell

Getty Images: Archive Films (video), Bettmann, Smith Collection/Gado, Time Life Pictures, Topical Press Agency; Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division; North Wind Picture Archives; Science Source/LOC

Alexander Hamilton

Alamy: Peter Phipp/Science History Images, Science History Images; Getty Images: Bettmann, GraphicaArtis, MPI; Public.Resource.Org (video); North Wind Picture Library; Shutterstock: Everett Historical

Amelia Earhart

Alamy/Aviation History Collection, Getty Images: Bettmann, Grinberg Paramount, Pathe Newsreels (video), Time Life Pictures

Andrew Jackson

Getty Images: Jennava Laska (video), Kean Collection; Library of Congress/Print and Photographs Collection; North Wind Picture Archive; Shutterstock: Everett-Art, Everett Historical, Joseph Sohm

Anne Frank

Alamy: Everett Collection Inc, United Archives GmbH; Getty Images: Bettmann, Heritage Images, Photo 12, Popperfoto, ullstein bild Dtl., The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision (video); Newscom/Album/Fine Art Images

Anne Hutchinson

Alamy: Everett Collection Historical, Historical Images Archive; Getty Images/Bettmann; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

Barack Obama

Alamy/White House Photo; Getty Images: Barcroft, Joe Wrinn/Harvard University, SAUL LOEB, The Washington Post, Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video); Wikimedia/Public Domain

Barbara McClintock

Getty Images: Bettmann, Universal History Archive, Science Source: National Library of Medicine, Science Source, Smithsonian Institution Libraries

Benazir Bhutto

AP Images/Associated Press; Getty Images: ASIF HASSAN/Stringer, Bettmann, Chip HIRES, Evening Standard/Stringer, Lightrocket, Sky News/Film Image Partner (video), Wally McNamee

Benjamin Banneker

Alamy: Everett Collection Inc, Jason O. Watson/historical-markers.org; Getty Images: MPI, Stock Montage, Universal History Archive/UIG; North Wind Picture Archive

Benjamin Franklin

Getty Images: Bettmann, Kean Collection, Superstock; North Wind Picture Archive; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Georgios Kollidas, Rick Ray (video), Valerii_Dex, Victorian Traditions

Benjamin Harrison

Alamy: Bygone Collection, Niday Picture Library; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

Bill Clinton

Getty Images: Bettmann, ITN Archive Limited (video), Joe Sohm/Visions of America, Mathieu Polak, PAUL J. RICHARDS/Stringer, THONY BELIZAIRE/Stringer; Newscom/Bob McNeely/Pictures From History

Bill Gates

Getty Images: Chesnot, Chip Somodevilla, Doug Wilson, ITN Archive Limited (video), Lionel Green, Science & Society Picture Library

Booker T. Washington

Getty Images: Authenticated News/Archive Photos, Bettmann, The March of Time (video), Universal History Archive/UIG; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

Calvin Coolidge

Alamy/Everett Collection Inc.; Getty Images: Bettmann, Keystone, Library of Congress, MPI; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Rick Ray (video)

Carrie Chapman Catt

Alamy: Paul Fearn, Photo Researchers, World History Archive; Getty Images: Bettmann, Hearst Newsreel (video), Museum of the City of New York; Newscom/LOC/Cover Images

Cesar Chavez

Alamy/Everett Collection; Getty Images: Bettmann, Bob Parent, Cathy Murphy, Encyclopaedia Britannica Film- Footage (video); Newscom: Everett Collection

Chester Arthur

Alamy: Historic Collection, nsf; Newscom/Picture History; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: American Productions (video), Everett Collection

Chien-Shiung Wu

Getty Images: Bettmann, Gjon Mili/Contributor, Robert W. Kelley/Contributor; Science Source/Emilio Segre Visual Archives; Shutterstock/zhu difeng

Christopher Columbus

Getty Images: Bettmann, Universal History Archive; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock; Everett Historical, Rick Ray (video)

Clara Barton

Alamy/Niday Picture Collection; Getty Images/Bettmann; Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division; Newscom/Picture History; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video); Schenectady County Public Library

Cristiano Ronaldo

Getty Images: JIJI PRESS/Stringer, Koichi Kamosshida/Staff, Marco Canoniero/Contributor, Matthew Ashton/Contributor, NAYATO LX (video), YURI CORTEZ/Staff; Newscom/Daisuke Nakashima/AFLO; Shutterstock/visualpower

Danica Patrick

Alamy/PBWPIX; Getty: AFP, John Dacanay – WI (video), Jonathan Ferrey, The Washington Post, Timothy Hiatt

Daniel Boone

Alamy: Chronicle, Historic Images; Getty Images/Skyworks (video); North Wind Picture Archives; Science Source/Photo Researchers

Dolores Huerta

Getty Images: Alex Wong, Amanda Edwards, Anthony Potter Collection, Arthur Schatz, Cathy Murphy, WireImage House (video)

Donald Trump

Getty Images: Aaron Nobel (video), Bloomberg, GABRIEL BOUYS, New York Daily News Archive, Stringer/Sean Rayford; Wikimedia/Public Domain

Dwight Eisenhower

Getty Images: Library of Congress, PhotoQuest; Newscom: akg-images, Everett Collection, Glasshouse Images, National Archives/MCT, U.S. Army via CNP; Shutterstock/Rick Ray, (video)

Edwin Hubble

Getty Images: Archive Films-Editorial (video), Jon Brenneis; Science Source: Emilio Segre Visual Archives/American Institute of Physics, Fahad Sulehria/Stocktrek Images; Shutterstock/MarcelClemens; SuperStock/Huntington Library

Eleanor Roosevelt

Getty Images: Bettmann, Fotosearch/Stringer, Keystone/Stringer; Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video)

Eli Whitney

Getty Images: Bettmann, MPI/Stringer; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock; Everett Historical, Rick Ray (video)

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Alamy: Artokoloro Quint Lox Limited, Paul Fearn, Pictorial Press Ltd; Getty: Epics, Grinberg, Paramount, Pathe Newsreels (video); Newscom/Mathew Brady Picture History; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

Elizabeth I

Getty Images: Hulton Archive/Stringer, Stock Montage/Contributer; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Everett-Art, Georgios Kollidas

Ellen Ochoa

Alamy/NASA; AP Images: AP Images, NASA (video); Getty Images/Hulton Deutsch/Contributor; NASA; Shutterstock/jejim

Ferdinand Magellan

Alamy: Chronicle, Prisma Archivo; Getty Images/Stefano Bianchetti; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Konstantinos Metzitakos, UGChannel (video); SuperStock/The Art Archive

Francisco Coronado

Alamy/Glasshouse Images; Bridgeman Images; Coton, Graham (1926-2003) / Private Collection / © Look and Learn, Embleton, Ron (1930-88) / Private Collection / © Look and Learn; Getty Images: GraphicaArtis, Photo 12; North Wind Picture Archives; Wikimedia/Billy Hathorn

Francisco Pizarro

Getty Images: Bettmann, PHAS/Contributor; Newscom: Heritage Images/Fine Art Images, Oronoz/Album; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Julian Schlaen

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Alamy/Everett Collection Historical; Newscom: akg-images, Everett Collection, Ingram Publishing: Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video)

Franklin Pierce

Getty Images/Historical/Contributor; Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division; Newscom/Picture History; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

Gabby Douglas

AP Images/Associated Press; Getty Images: Adam Pretty, AFP Footage (video), BEN STANSALL, Jamie Squire, Kansas City Star, Laurence Griffiths, Nicholas Hunt

Galileo Galilei

Getty Images/Science & Society Picture Library; Newscom: Fine Art Images/Album, Heritage Images/The Print Collector; Science Source; Clive Streeter / Dorling Kindersley /Science Museum, London, Jessica Wilson (video), New York Public Library; Shutterstock: Georgios Kollidas, joyfull

George H.W. Bush

Getty Images: AFP, Bettmann, Brooks Kraft LLC, Corbis; Newscom/Everett Collection; Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video)

George W. Bush

Getty Images: ABC News VideoSource (video), Brooks Kraft/Contributor, Historical/Contributor, Robert Daemmrich Photography Inc, Universal History Archive; Newscom/Pictures From History/Eric Draper

George Washington

Alamy/Pictorial Press; Getty Images/Smithsonian (video); Newscom; akg-images, Everett Collection; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Everett-Art, Victorian Traditions

George Washington Carver

Alamy/Michael Munster; Getty Images: Bettmann, Hulton Archive, The March of Time (video); Library of Congress/Prints & Photographs Division; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

Gerald Ford

Alamy/Everett Collection; Getty Images: Bettmann, Hearst Newsreel (video), Hulton Archive, Stringer; Newscom/Pictures From History/David Hume Kennerley

Grover Cleveland

Getty Images: Bettmann, Kean Collection/Staff; Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Rick Ray (video)

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Alamy/Alpha Historical; Getty Images: Hulton Deutsch, Kean Collection; Newscom/Matthew Brady Picture History; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Rick Ray (video); Wikimedia

Harriet Tubman

Alamy/Alpha Historica; Getty Images/Cincinnati Museum Center; Newscom/Glasshouse Images; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstoc: debra millet, Everett Historical, Rick Ray (video)

Harry Truman

Getty Images: Bettmann, Historical, The March of Time (video)

Helen Keller

Alamy/ART Collection; Getty Images: Bettmann, Hearst Newsreel (video), Historical, Keystone-France, New York Times Co., Rolls Press/Popperfoto

Henry Ford

Getty Images: Apic/RETIRED, Bettmann, Getty Images, Library of Congress, RacingOne, William Vandivert; Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video)

Herbert Hoover

Alamy/Don Smetzer; Getty Images: A. R. Coster, Bettmann, Grinberg, Paramount, Pathe Newsreels (video), Historical, Keystone, MPI; Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division

Hernan Cortes

Alamy/Classic Image; Getty Images/Vivimage Inc. (video); North Wind Picture Archives, Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Georgios Kollidas

Heroes of the Alamo

Alamy/Niday Picture Library, Paul Fearn, World History Archive; Getty Images: Bettmann, MPI/Stringer; Shutterstock: Dean Fikar, Everett Historical, Sehenswerk (video); Wikimedia/Texas State Library and Archives Commission

Indira Gandhi

Alamy/Trinity Mirror / Mirrorpix; Getty Images: Imagno, Keystone, Laurent MAOUS, Onyx Media, Llc – Footage (video), Paul Popper/Popperfoto, UniversalImagesGroup

Iroquois Confederacy

Alamy: Classic Image, Photo Researchers History Images; Getty Images: Bettmann, Stock Montage; North Wind Picture Archives

Isaac Newton

Getty Images/Science & Society Picture Library; Newscom/World History Archive; Science Source: Jessica Wilson (video), Science Source; Shutterstock: Georgios Kollidas, iryna1

Jackie Joyner-Kersee

Alamy/Jim West; AP Images/AP Photo; Getty Image: AFP/ERIC FEFERBERG, Focus On Sport, Prince Williams, The Washington Post/Jahi Chikwendiu, Tony Duffy, Tribune Broadcasting/Anna Burkart (video), Wally McNamee

Jackie Robinson

Getty Images: Archive Photos/Stringer, Bettmann/Contributor, Grinberg, Paramount, Pathe Newsreels (video), Hulton Archive/Staff, Sports Studios Photos/Contributor

James A Lovell Jr.

Getty Images: Bettmann/Contributor, Jay West/Contributor, Ralph Morse/Contributor; NASA Johnson Space Center; Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video)

James Buchanan

Getty Images: MPI/Stringer, Tribune Broadcasting - Kelsey Kind (video); Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division; Newscom: Encyclopaedia Britannica/UIG Universal Images Group, Mediadrumworld.com/ZUMA Press; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Jose Gil, LEE SINDER PHOTO IMAGES

James Garfield

Alamy: Classic Image, Everett Collection Historical; Getty Images: Kean Collection, Vivimage, Inc. (video); North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

James K. Polk

Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division; Newscom/Album/Prisma; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Everett-Art, Sara Kendall

James Madison

Alamy/INTERFOTO; Getty Images: DEA/A. DE GREGORIO, National Archives; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Everett-Art

James Monroe

Getty Images: Bettmann, GraphicaArtis, Kean Collection, William C. Shrout; Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Onur ERSIN

Jane Addams

Alamy/GL Archive; Getty Images: Bettmann, Fotosearch/Stringer, Grinberg, Paramount, Pathe Newsreels (video), Photo 12; Science Source/Library of Congress

Jane Goodall

Alamy/Xinhua; Courtesy of The Jane Goodall Institute; Getty Images: AFP Footage (video), Amanda Edwards/Contributor, Betmann, Keystone/Stringer, TONY KARUMBA/Stringer

Jimmy Carter

Getty Images: Bettmann, Film Audio Services-Footage (video), Getty Images, Historical, Photo 12, Ron Galella; Newscom: Everett Collection, NARA Agence Quebec Presse

Johannes Gutenberg

Alamy/ Lebrecht Music & Arts; Getty Images/Universal Images Group; Newscom/Ken Welsh; North Wind Picture Archives; Science Source/Jessica Wilson (video)

John Danny Olivas

Alamy/David Wei; NASA: Johnson Space Center; Kennedy Space Center/Kim Shiflett; Shutterstock/Ken Wolter

John Adams

Alamy/Photo Researchers; Getty Images: Skyworks (video), Smith Collection/Gado/Contributor; Newscom/Picture History; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Daniel M. Silva, Everett-Art

John Cabot

Alamy: Patrick Eden, Science History Images; Bridgeman Images/John Cabot: The Man Who Found Canada, Tacconi, Ferdinando (1922-2006) / Private Collection / © Look and Learn; Getty Images: Bettmann, Heritage Images/Contributor, Print Collector/Contributor; Newscom/World History Archive; North Wind Picture Archives

John F. Kennedy

Getty Images: Bettmann, Corbis Historical, Historical, Hulton Archive, Keystone/Staff, Stringer; Newscom: CNP/AdMedia, CNP/AdMedia/SIPA, /Robert Knudsen/dpa/picture-alliance; Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video)

John Quincy Adams

Getty Images: Bettmann, DEA PICTURE LIBRARY, Fine Art; Library of Congress/Detroit Publishing Company; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock; Everett – Art, Everett Historical

John Tyler

Alamy/Paul Fearn; Getty Images/Hulton Archive/Stringer; Newscom: Everett Collection, Picture History; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Heath Oldham

Jonas Salk

Getty Images: Bettmann, The New York Historical Society; Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video)

Juan Ponce de Leon

Getty Images: Aerial HD Stock LLC (video), Stock Montage/Contributer, UniversalImagesGroup/Contributor; North Wind Picture Archives; Science Source/LOC/Geography and Map Division

Langston Hughes

Alamy/Photo Researchers Inc; Getty Images: Archive Films (video), Bettmann, Hulton Archive, Jemal Countess, Robert W. Kelley, Teenie Harris Archive/Carnegie Museum of Art, Underwood Archives; Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division

Leonardo da Vinci

Alamy: PAINTING, Peter Horree; Getty Images: Ted Spiegel, Universal History Archive; Science Source: Jessica Wilson (video), Mary Evans, Science Source; Shutterstock/Georgios Kollidas

Lindsey Vonn

Getty Images: Alexis Boichard/Agence Zoom, Mike Powell, Sean M. Haffey, Shaun Botterill, WireImage House (video); Newscom/Carlos Gonzalez/Polaris

Lisa Leslie

AP Images: Charles Krupa, Julie Markes ; Getty Images/WireImage House (video); Newscom: ADREES LATIF/Reuters, BOB LEVERONE/KRT, PhotoLouis Lopez/beiLL071205-039,

ROGER L. WOLLENBERG/UPI, SERGIO PEREZ/Reuters

Louis Pasteur

Getty Images: Apic/RETIRED, Bettmann, Stefano Bianchetti, Universal History Archive; Science Source/Jessica Wilson (video); Shutterstock/Everett Historical

Ludwig van Beethoven

Alamy/INTERFOTO; Getty Images: API, Bettmann; North Wind Picture Archives; Science Source/Science Source; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, JJ Media (video)

Lyndon B. Johnson

Getty Images: Bettmann, Historical, Michael Rougier, PhotoQuest; Newscom/akg-images; Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video)

Madame C.J. Walker

A’Lelia Bundles/Madam Walker Family Archives; Getty Images: Michael Ochs Archives/Stringer, Raymond Boyd/Contributor; Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division

Mae Jemison

Getty Images: Bettmann, Brian Craig (video), Time Life Pictures; NASA Johnson Space Center; Science Source/NASA; Shutterstock/turtix

Malala Yousafzai

Getty Images: AAMIR QURESHI, AFP, Jemal Countess, Sky News/Film Image Partner (video), STAN HONDA, Veronique de Viguerie; Shutterstock/JStone

Marco Polo

Alamy/ Lou-Foto; Getty Images: DEA PICTURE LIBRARY, Hulton Archive; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Anton Petrus, Demarage (video)

Maria Mitchell

Alamy/The History Collection; Getty Images/Interim Archives; Newscom/Picture History; Science Source: New York Public Library, SPL; Shutterstock/LEE SNIDER PHOTO IMAGES

Marian Anderson

Getty Images: Afro Newspaper/Gado, Authenticated News, Bettmann, Hulton Deutsch, Pictorial Parade; Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video)

Marie Curie

Getty Images: Apic/RETIRED, Grinberg, Paramount, Panthe Newsreels (video), Hulton Archive, Popperfoto, Print Collector; Science Source/SPL; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

Mark Zuckerberg

Getty Images: AFP, Boston Globe, Getty Images Video (video), GLENN CHAPMAN, JOHN MACDOUGALL, Rick Friedman, Steve Jennings

Martin Luther King Jr.

Alamy/Walter Bibikow/DanitaDelimont.com; Getty Images: Bettmann, CORBIS, /Hulton Archive, Onyx Media Llc – Footage (video), The LIFE Images Collectionn/Don Cravens, Time Life Pictures/Diana Walker

Martin Van Buren

Alamy/World History Archive; Getty Images: Bettmann, PhotoQuest; Shutterstock: American Productions (video), Dirk M. de Boer, Everett Historical, Nagel Photography

Mia Hamm

Getty Images: David Madison/Contributor, Doug Pensinger/Staff, Franck Sequin/Contributor, Jed Jacobsohn/Staff, Shaun Botterill, Tribune Broadcasting - Anna Burkart (video), Will McIntyre/Contributor

Michael Jordan

Alamy/Archive PL; AP Images: Bob Jordan, John Swart, Lennox McLendon; Getty Images: Chip Somodevilla/Staff, ITN Archive Limited (video); Newscom: Cliff Welch/Icon SMI 357/Cliff Welch/Icon SMI, Douliery Olivier/Sipa USA USA, Michael Kleinfeld UPI Photo Service

Michael Phelps

Alamy/PCN Photography; Getty Images: AFP Footage (video), Bryan Bedder, Ian MacNicol, Robert B. Stanton, Ross Kinnaird, Steve Russell; Shutterstock/Petr Toman

Michelangelo

Alamy/Peter Barritt; Getty Images: Juan Carlos Munoz (video), Thekla Clark; Newscom/Design Pics/Ken Welsh; Science Source/Sheila Terry; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, liberowolf, Stefano Borsa

Millard Fillmore

Alamy/GL Archive; Getty Images: Hulton Archive, Library of Congress, Photo 12; Library of Congress/Brady-Handy photograph collection; North Wind Picture Archives

Milton Hershey

Courtesy of Hershey Community Archives, Hershey PA; Getty Images: Bettmann/Contributor, Leonard McCombe/Contributor; Milton Hershey School; Newscom/Everett Collection; Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video)

Mo’ne Davis

Alamy: Splash News, Tribune Content Agency LLC, Zuma Press Inc.; Getty Images: David Livingston/Contributor, Getty Images Video (video), Gilbert Carrasquillo/Contributor, Rob Carr/Staff

Mohandas Gandhi

Getty Images: Dinodia Photos, Henry Guttmann, Hulton Archive, Keystone, Time Image (video), Time Life Pictures, Topical Press Agency, Universal History Archive

Mother Teresa

AP Images/WTN/ITN /WCVB (video); Getty Images: ARKO DATTA, Bettmann, Michael Brennan, nik wheeler, Vittoriano Rastelli; Science Source/Calogero Cascio

Neil Armstrong

Getty Images: Bettmann, David Howells, Handout, Onyx Media, Lic-Footag (video), Science & Society Picture Library, Time Life Pictures; NASA/Johnson Space Center

Nicolaus Copernicus

Alamy/David Grossman; North Wind Picture Archives; Science Source; Crawford Library /Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Mary Evans, Wilson/Treadwell (video), Shutterstock: Georgios Kollidas, iryna1

Nikola Tesla

Alamy: Hi-Story, Niday Picture Library; Getty Images: Roger Viollet, Science & Society Picture Library; Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division; Science Source/Jessica Wilson (video); Shutterstock: Everett Historical, iascic

Oprah Winfrey

Alamy/MediaPunch Inc; Getty Images: Afro Newspaper/Gado, Getty Images Video (video), John Phillips, Pan Media Agency, Raymond Boyd, Ron Galella

Pablo Picasso

Alamy/EFE News Agency; Getty Images: adoc-photos, Apic/RETIRED, George Stroud, Hearst Newsreel (video), Popperfoto, RALPH GATTI

Queen Victoria

Alamy: IMAGEPAST, Lebrecht Music & Arts; Getty Images: Hulton Archive, Kean Collection, Popperfoto, Roger Fenton; Shutterstock/Morebeans

Rachel Carson

Alamy/Everett Collection Historical; Getty Images: Alfred Eisenstaedt, George Rinhart, JHU Sheridan Libraries/Gado, Stock Montage, The Asahi Shimbun

Rene-Robert Cavelier, sieur de la Salle

Alamy: Art Directors & TRIP, Historic Collection, Niday Picture Library, Universal Images Group North America LLC; Bridgeman Images/The Building of the "Griffon" (colour litho), Kyle, James Fergus (1876-1941) / Private Collection / © Look and Learn; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Danita Delmont (video); SuperStock/Artepics/age fotostock

Richard Nixon

Getty Images: American Stock Archive, Bettmann, Henry Groskinsky, Hulton Archive, Wally McNamee; Newscom/Pictures From History; Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video)

Ronald Reagan

Getty Images: Bettmann, Historical, Hulton Archive, Michael Evans, SGranitz; Newscom/Agence Quebec Presse; Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video)

Rosa Parks

Alamy/Everett Collection Inc; Getty Images: Archive Films (video), Bettmann, Don Cravens, The Washington Post, William Philpott; Newscom: Everett Collection, World History Archive

Rosalind Franklin

Alamy: Angelo Hornak, Science History Images; Getty Images: Donaldson Collection, Past Pix, Universal History Archive; Science Source/Jessica Wilson (video)

Ruth Handler

Alamy/Sueddeutsche Zeitung Photo; Getty Images: Denver Post/Contributor, James Leynse/Contributor, MATT CAMPBELL/Stringer, New York Post Archives, /Ron Galella/Contributor; Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video)

Rutherford B. Hayes

Getty Images: Library of Congress, MPI; Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division; Newscom/Picture History; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

Sacagawea

Bridgeman ImagesLewis and Clark with Sacagawea (colour litho) (detail), Paxson, Edgar Samuel (1852-1915) / Private Collection / Peter Newark American Pictures; Getty Images: Historical, MPI/Stringer, Smithsonian (video); North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Ace Diamond, Michael Warwick

Sally Ride

Getty Images: Bettmann, Tom Williams; NASA Image and Video Library; Shutterstock: Andrea Izzotti, Rick Ray (video)

Sam Walton

Alamy/age footstock; Getty Images: Bettmann, Fred Stein Archive/Contributor, Gilles Mingasson/Contributor, LIKE FRAZZA/Staff; Shutterstock: capitanoproductions (video), Everett Historical, Joseph Sohm; Walmart Corp

Samuel Adams

Alamy/IanDagnall Computing; Getty Images/Hulton Archive; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

Sandra Day O’Connor

Alamy/Everett Collection Historical; Getty Images: Bettmann, Charles Ommanney, Chip Somodevilla, ITN (video)

Sarah Winnemucca

Alamy: FLHC 16, Michael DeFreitas North America, Paul Fearn, Science History Images, The Protected Art Archive; Getty Images/Transcendental Graphics; Nativestock/Angel Wynn

Sequoyah

Alamy: Colin Waters, Jerry Whaley, National Geographic Creative; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

Serena Williams

Getty Images: AFP/Adam Davy, AFP/Paul Harris, Gary M Prior, Jamie Squire, Jerritt Clark, SIMON MAINA, Sky News (video)

Sitting Bull

Alamy: Glasshouse Images, Hi-Story; Getty Images: Bettmann, DEA PICTURE LIBRARY; LilliMar Pictures (video); North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

Sojourner Truth

Alamy: Glasshouse Images, /MARKA; Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division; Newscom/Everett Collection; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

Stephen Hawking

Alamy: Art Directors & TRIP, Trinity Mirror/Mirrorpix; Getty Images: Brian Craig (video), Gary Gershoff, Karwai Tang, Terry Smith; Shutterstock/Tatjana Wala

Susan B. Anthony

Getty Images: Bettmann, Hearst Newsreel (video); Newscom: Everett Collection, Napoleon Sarony Picture History, Picture History; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, LEE SNIDER PHOTO IMAGES; Wikimedia

Texan Business Leaders

Alamy/age footstock; Getty Images: Anna Webber/Stringer, Bettmann, Harry Benson/Stringer, Jospeh Scherschel, Shelly Katz/Contributor, Tribune Broadcasting - Joan De Jesus (video); Library of Congress/Prints & Photographs Division; Texas State Historical Association; Wikimedia/Texas Energy Museum

Texan Composers and Entertainers

Alamy: Archive PL, CBW, Ian Dagnall, Media Punch, Pictorial Press Ltd.; Getty Images: AFP Footage (video), Michael Ochs Archives/Stringer; Newscom/San Antonio Express-News/ZUMA Press

Texan Explorers and Pioneers

Alamy/Niday Picture Library; Getty Images: DEA/G. DAGLI ORTI/Contributor, Denver Post/Contributor, Larry Busacca/Staff, MPI/Stringer; Newscom/Picture History; Shutterstock/CrackerClips Stock Media (video); Wikimedia: Texas State Historical Association, Texas State Library and Archives Commission

Texan Politicians

Alamy/Art Collection 3; Getty Images: Bettmann, Conus Archives-Footage (video), CQ Archive, Keystone/Stringer, Own Franken-Corbis/Contributor, Print Collector/Contributor, Robert Daemmrich Photography Inc/Contributor, Thomas D. McAvoy; Library of Congress/Prints & Photographes Division; North Wind Picture Archive; Shutterstock/Everett Historical; Texas State Library and Archives Commission

Texan Scientists and Inventors

Alamy: NASA Photo, Science History Images; Getty Images: Bettmann/Contributor, Bloomberg Video-Footage (video), Justin Sullivan/Staff, Library of Congress; NASA/Kennedy Space Center/Cory Huston; Newscom/ROGER L. WOLLENBERG/UPI

Texans in the Military

Getty Images: Bettmann/Contributor, Grinberg, Paramount, Pathe Newsreels (video), Horace Abrahams/Stringer, UniversalImagesGroup/Contributor; Shutterstock/Everett Historical; Texas State Library and Archives Commission; Wikimedia: Texas State Library and Archives Commission

The 442nd Regimental

Getty Images: Reda Archives-Footage (video), Stringer/Hulton Archive; Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division; Newscom: AFLO Sports/Teddy WadeEverett Collection, Reuters/Shannon Stapleton

The Wright Brothers

Getty Images: Apic/RETIRED, Bettmann, Hulton Archive, Library of Congress, NASA/NASA, Science & Society Picture Library; Shutterstock/Rick Ray (video)

Theodore Roosevelt

Getty Images/Smith Collection/Gado/Contributor; Newscom: Everett Collection, The Print Collector Heritage Images; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Rick Ray (video), Zack Frank

Thomas Edison

Getty Images: Bettmann, CORBIS, Hulton Archive, Hulton-Deutsch/Contributor,

Keystone-France; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Rick Ray (video)

Thomas Jefferson

Newscom: Active Museum/Le Pictorium, Album/Prisma, Glasshouse Images; North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock: Chris DeRidder and Hans VandenNieuwendijk (video),

Daniel M. Silva, Everett Historical, Jess Kraft, Steve Heap

Thurgood Marshall

Alamy/Everett Collection Inc; Getty Images: Hearst Newsreel (video), Library of Congress, New York Post Archives, PhotoQuest, Stock Montage

Todd Beamer

Newscom: Reuters (video), Reuters/STR, ZUMA Press/Beamer Family, ZUMA Press/Times of Trenton; Shutterstock/Jim Feliciano

Tuskegee Airmen

Getty Images: Afro Newspaper/Gado, Bettmann, Hearst Newsreel (video), Stringer/Hulton Archive; Newscom: DoD, Everett Collection; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

Ulysses S. Grant

Getty Images: Heritage Images/Contributor, Interim Archives, MPI/Stringer; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Joe Ravi, John Wollwerth, Rick Ray (video)

Vera Wang

Alamy: Antiques & Collectables, Everett Collection Inc., Keystone Pictures USA, Splash News;

Getty Images: Mitchell Gerber/Contributor, Rose Hartman/Contributor, VF1-Footage (video);

Shutterstock/Kiev.Victor

W.E.B. Du Bois

Alamy/Everett Collection Inc. ; Getty Images : Bettmann, David Attie/Contributor, George Rinhart/Contributor; Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division; Science Source/New York Public Library

Wallace Amos

AP Images: Lucy Pemoni, Mark Foley; Getty Images: H. Armstrong Roberts/ClassicStock, Michael Ochs Archives/Stringer, The Washington Post/Contributor; Shutterstock/Scott Cornell

Warren G. Harding

Getty Images: FPG/Staff, Library of Congress; Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Rick Ray (video)

Wayne Gretzky

Getty Images: ABC News VideoSource (video), Andrew D. Bernstein, B Bennett, Denis Brodeur, Ray Stubblebine

William H. Taft

Alamy/Glasshouse Images; Getty Images/Bettmann; Library of Congress/Prints & Photographs Division; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Rick Rat (video)

William Henry Harrison

Alamy/PAINTING; Getty Images: Bettmann, Sky Works (video); North Wind Picture Archives; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

William McKinley

Alamy/John Frost Newspapers; Getty Images: Bettmann, Library of Congress, Photo 12; Newscom/Ken Welsh; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Rick Ray (video), Robert Byrd

Wilma Mankiller

Alamy/Buddy Mays; AP Images/Pool (video); Getty Images: Bettmann, Ralph Crane, Stephen Shugerman, The Washington Post/Contributor

Wilma Rudolph

Alamy/Everett Collection Historical; AP Images: Associated Press, British Movietone (video), Getty Images: Bettmann, Ed Clark/Contributor

Wolfgang Mozart

Alamy/Music-Images; Getty Images: AFP Footage (video), DEA/A. DAGLI ORTI, Imagno; Newscom/Ann Ronan Picture Library Heritage Images; North Wind Picture Archives; Science Source/Bildagentur-online/TH Foto-Werbung

Woodrow Wilson

Getty Images: Bettmann, Hulton Archive, Photo 12, Stringer/MPI, Universal History Archive; Shutterstock: Everett Historical, Rick Ray (video)

Yo-Yo Ma

AP Images/Elise Amendola; Getty Images: Bettmann, Bill Johnson, Hiroyuki Ito, JIM WATSON, Ryan Miller, Tribune Broadcasting- Anna Burkart (video)

Zachary Taylor

Alamy/ClassicStock; Getty Images: Hulton Archive, Stock Montage; Newscom/World History Archive; Shutterstock/Everett Historical

PGN Biographies Quotations

Abraham Lincoln, slide 4: Peoria Speech, October 16, 1854." National Park Service. 10 April 2015. 27 July 2017. https://www.nps.gov/liho/learn/historyculture/peoriaspeech.htm

Abraham Lincoln, slide 5: "We Must Not Be Enemies." Library of Congress. 27 July 2017. https://www.loc.gov/wiseguide/mar04/enemies.html

Abraham Lincoln, slide 6: Stephen M. Archer. "Booth, John Wilkes." American National Biography Online. Feb. 2000. 27 July 2017. http://www.anb.org/articles/04/04-01210.html

Ada Lovelace, slide 2: Christopher Klein. "10 Things You May Not Know About Ada Lovelace." History.com. 10 Dec. 2015. 6 August 2018. http://www.history.com/news/10-things-you-may-not-know-about-ada-lovelace

Ada Lovelace, slide 3: "Augusta Ada King, countess of Lovelace." School of Mathematical and Computational Sciences University of St Andrews. 6 August 2018. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Lovelace.html

Ada Lovelace, slide 4: Walter Isaacson. The Innovators. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014.

Ada Lovelace, slide 5v Ibid.

Adolf Hitler, slide 3: Ian Kershaw. Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton, 2008, p. 52.

Adolf Hitler, slide 5: "Röhm Purge." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 9 August 2018. https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007885

Adolf Hitler, slide 6: Ibid.

Albert Einstein, slide 5: Michio Kaku. Einstein's Cosmos: How Albert Einstein's Vision Transformed Our Understanding of Space and Time. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2005, p. 109.

Albert Einstein, slide 6: "On My Participation In The Atom Bomb Project." Atomic Archive. 6 August 2018. http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/Hiroshima/EinsteinResponse.shtml

Albert Einstein, slide 7: "Frontiers in Science." American Museum of Natural History. 6 August 2018. https://www.amnh.org/learn/pd/physical_science/profiles/aeinstein_3.html

Alexander Grahmam Bell, slide 4: Leonard C. Bruno. "'Mr. Watson, Come Here.'" Library of Congress. 9 August 2018. https://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/9904/bell.html

Alexander Hamilton, slide 5: Michael A. Genovese (ed). The Federalist Papers: Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009.

Amelia Earhart, slide 2: "Biography." ameliaearhart.com. 6 August 2018. https://www.ameliaearhart.com/biography/

Amelia Earhart, slide 3: "Amelia Earhart, 1897–1937." PBS. 6 August 2018. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/earhart-timeline/

Amelia Earhart, slide 5: Ibid.

Amelia Earhart, slide 6: "Amelia Earhart Disappears." History.com. 6 August 2018. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/amelia-earhart-disappears

Andrew Jackson, slide 4: "Andrew Jackson: Campaigns and Elections." UVA Miller Center. 6 August 2018. https://millercenter.org/president/jackson/campaigns-and-elections

Andrew Jackson, slide 5: "Election on 1828." United States History. 6 August 2018. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h325.html

Andrew Jackson, slide 7: H.W. Brands. Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times. New York: Anchor Books, 2006, p. 478.

Andrew Johnson, slide 4: Annette Gordon-Reed. Andrew Johnson: The American Presidents Series. New York: Times Books, 2011.

Andrew Johnson, slide 5: Kathleen L. Wensel. Freedom Is…: A Book Journal with a Twist. Bloomington, Ind.: Tafford Publishing, 2008, p. 191.

Anne Frank, slide 5, quote 1: Anne Frank, B.M. Mooyaart, and Eleanor Roosevelt. The Diary of a Young Girl. Random House, 1993, p. 144.

Anne Frank, slide 5, quote 2: Ibid., p. 21.

Anne Frank, slide 5, quote 3: Ibid., p. 68.

Anne Frank, slide 6: "The Story of Anne Frank: The Arrest." Anne Frank House. 9 August 2018. http://web.annefrank.org/en/Anne-Frank/Discovery-and-arrest/The-arrest/

Anne Frank, slide 7, quote 1: "The Story of Anne Frank: Otto Frank." Anne Frank House. 9 August 2018. http://web.annefrank.org/en/Anne-Frank/Otto-returns-alone/Otto-reads-Annes-diary/

Anne Frank, slide 7, quote 2: The Diary of a Young Girl, forward.

Anne Hutchinson, slide 4, quote 1: "People & Ideas: Anne Hutchinson." NPR. 6 August 2018. http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/anne-hutchinson.html

Anne Hutchinson, slide 4, quote 2, Ibid.

Anne Hutchinson, slide 5: Eve LaPlante. American Jezebel: The Uncommon Life of Anne Hutchinson, the Woman Who Defied Puritans . San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2004.

Barack Obama, slide 2: Michael Nelson. "Barack Obama: Life Before the Presidency." University of Virginia Miller Center. 9 August 2018. https://millercenter.org/president/obama/life-before-the-presidency

Barack Obama, slide 5: Macon Phillips. "President Barack Obama's Inaugural Address." The White House President Barack Obama. 21 Jan. 2009. 9 August 2018. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/blog/2009/01/21/president-barack-obamas-inaugural-address

Barbara McClintock, slide 2: Ray Spangenburg and Diane Kit Moser. Barbara McClintock: Pioneer Geneticist. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 2008.

Barbara McClintock, slide 3: Ibid.

Barbara McClintock, slide 4: Rachel Swaby. Headstrong: 52 Women Who Changed Science—and the World. New York: Broadway Books, 2015.

Barbara McClintock, slide 5: Kathleen Tracy. Barbara McClintock: Pioneering Geneticist. Unlocking the Secrets of Science . Bear, Delaware: Mitchell Lane Publishers, 2002.

Barbara McClintock, slide 6: Ibid.

Barbara McClintock, slide 7: Barbara McClintock: Pioneer Geneticist.

Benazir Bhutto, slide 2: "Icon of Democracy." Academy of Achievement. 27 Oct. 2000. 6 August 2018. http://www.achievement.org/achiever/benazir-bhutto/#interview

Benazir Bhutto, slide 3: Benazir Bhutto. Daughter of Destiny: An Autobiography. New York: Harper Perennial, 2007.

Benazir Bhutto, slide 4, quote 1: Ibid., p. 97.

Benazir Bhutto, slide 4, quote 2: Jerrold M. Post. Narcissism and Politics: Dreams of Glory. Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 64.

Benazir Bhutto, slide 5, quote 1: Daughter of Destiny: An Autobiography.

Benazir Bhutto, slide 5, quote 2: Ibid., p. 360.

Benazir Bhutto, slide 7: Ibid., p. xi.

Benazir Bhutto, slide 7: Ibid., p. xi.

Benjamin Banneker , slide 5: "The Declaration of Independence." USHistory.org. 9 August 2018. http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/

Benjamin Franklin: “Benjamin Franklin: The Writer.” America’s Library. 27 July 2017. http://www.americaslibrary.gov/aa/franklinb/aa_franklinb_writer_3.html

Benjamin Harrison, slide 3, quote 1: "Benjamin Harrison." Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site. 9 August 2018. http://www.presidentbenjaminharrison.org/learn/benjamin-harrison-1/early-years

Benjamin Harrison, slide 3, quote 2: Allan B. Spetter. "Benjamin Harrison: Life Before the Presidency." University of VIrginia Miller Center. 9 August 2018. https://millercenter.org/president/bharrison/life-before-the-presidency

Benjamin Harrison, slide 5: "Inaugural Address of Benjamin Harrison."The Avalon Project, Yale Law School. 4 March 1889. 9 August 2018. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/harris.asp

Bill Clinton, slide 5: "Clinton Farewell Address." ABC News. 18 Jan. 2001. 6 August 2018. http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/story?id=122026&page=1

Bill Gates, slide 2: "Gates of Success." The Best You Magazine. 22 Jan. 2014. 9 August 2018. https://thebestyoumagazine.co/gates-success/

Booker T. Washington, slide 2: Booker T. Washington. Up from Slavery. New York: Doubleday, 1901.

Booker T. Washington, slide 4: "Booker T. Washington." Encyclopedia Britannica. 9 August 2018. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Booker-T-Washington

Calvin Coolidge, slide 2: "Coolidge Chronology." Calvin Coolidge Presidential Foundation. 9 August 2018. https://coolidgefoundation.org/presidency/coolidge-chronology-30/

Calvin Coolidge, slide 3: David Greenberg. “Calvin Coolidge: Life in Brief.” University of Virginia Miller Center. 9 August 2018. https://millercenter.org/president/coolidge/life-in-brief

Calvin Coolidge, slide 4: David Greenberg. “Calvin Coolidge: Life Before the Presidency.” University of Virginia Miller Center. 9 August 2018. https://millercenter.org/president/coolidge/life-before-the-presidency

Calvin Coolidge, slide 5: Robert H. Ferrell. The Presidency of Calvin Coolidge. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1998, p. 18.

Calvin Coolidge, slide 6, quote 1: “Calvin Coolidge.” The White House. 9 August 2018. https://www.whitehouse.gov/about-the-white-house/presidents/calvin-coolidge/

Calvin Coolidge, slide 6, quote 2: David Greenberg. “Life After the Presidency.” University of Virginia Miller Center. 9 August 2018. https://millercenter.org/president/coolidge/life-after-the-presidency

Carrie Chapman Catt, slide 2: Ibid.

Carrie Chapman Catt, slide 4: Jacqueline Van Voris. Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. New York: The Feminist Press, 1996.

Carrie Chapman Catt, slide 7: "Carrie Chapman Catt." American Rhetoric. 6 August 2018. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/carriechapmancattsuffragespeech.htm

Chester Arthur, slide 5: "Chester A. Arthur: Address Upon Assuming the Office of President of the United States." The American Presidency Project. 22 Sept. 1881. 9 August 2018. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=68786

Chien-Shiung Wu, slide 6: "Chien-Shiung Wu." National Science & Technology Medals Foundation. 8 August 2018. https://www.nationalmedals.org/laureates/chien-shiung-wu

Clara Barton: "Clara Barton (The Angel of the Battlefield)." The Ohio State University. 27 July 2017. https://ehistory.osu.edu/biographies/clara-barton-angel-battlefield

Cristiano Ronaldo, slide 4: Arjun Miglani. "Cristiano Ronaldo Explains Decision to Leave Manchester United for Real Madrid." Goal. 9 August 2018. http://www.goal.com/en/news/12/spanish-football/2009/06/20/1337442/cristiano-ronaldo-explains-decision-to-leave-manchester

Cristiano Ronaldo, slide 6: "Cristiano Ronaldo hails Portugal's 'unforgettable' Euro 2016 title victory." ESPN. 10 July 2016. 9 August 2018. http://www.espn.com/soccer/portugal/story/2911076/cristiano-ronaldo-hails-portugals-unforgettable-euro-2016-title-victory

Danica Patrick, slide 4, quote 1: "Patrick Debut Overshadows Gerhart Win." Associated Press. 7 Feb. 2010. 6 August 2018. http://www.espn.com/racing/nascar/news/story?id=4893557

Danica Patrick, slide 4, quote 2: Jeff Gluck and Heather Tucker. "Danica Patrick Finishes Eighth in Daytona 500. USA Today. 24 Feb. 2013. 6 August 2018. https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/nascar/2013/02/24/daytona-500-2013-danica-patrick/1943125/

Danica Patrick, slide 5: "Danica Patrick, One Cure Driving for a Cancer Answer." Colorado State University. 10 May 2017. 6 August 2018. https://source.colostate.edu/danica-patrick-one-cure-driving-cancer-answer/

Daniel Boone, slide 7: Archibald Henderson. "Richard Henderson and the Occupation of Kentucky." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. Vol. 1.3, p. 353.

Dolores Huerta, slide 2: "Dolores Huerta." American Postal Workers Union. March 2003. 6 August 2018. http://www.apwu.org/labor-history-articles/dolores-huerta

Dolores Huerta, slide 4: "Dolores Huerta: The Civil Rights Icon Who Showed Farmworkers 'Sí Se Puede.'" NPR. 17 Sept. 2017. 6 August 2018. https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2017/09/17/551490281/dolores-huerta-the-civil-rights-icon-who-showed-farmworkers-si-se-puede

Dolores Huerta, slide 6: "Civil rights activist Dolores Huerta is 87 with no plans to retire." The Lily. 12 July 2017. 6 August 2018. https://medium.com/the-lily/civil-rights-activist-dolores-huerta-is-87-with-no-plans-to-retire-4b53f1d8d22d

Donald Trump, slide 5: "President Donald J. Trump." Biography.com. 9 August 2018. https://www.biography.com/people/donald-trump-9511238

Donald Trump, slide 6: Ibid.

Dwight Eisenhower, slide 4: EISENHOWER'S ORDER OF THE DAY UPON THE INVASION OF NORMANDY, JUNE 6, 1944. The National D-Day Memorial. 27 July 2017. https://www.dday.org/history/d-day-the-invasion/the-leadership.html

Dwight Eisenhower, slide 5, quote 1: Jim Newton. Eisenhower: The White House Years. New York: Random House Inc., 2011, p. 206.

Dwight Eisenhower, slide 5, quote 2: Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, Museum and Boyhood Home. 27 July 2017. https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=90&page=transcript

Edwin Hubble, slide 4, quote 1: Ibid., p. 28.

Edwin Hubble, slide 4, quote 2: Edwin Hubble. The Realm of the Nebulae. Stoughtan, Mass.: The Alpine Press, 1936, p. 21.

Edwin Hubble, slide 6, Mary Cross (ed). 100 People who changed the 20th-century America. ABC-CLIO, 2013, p. 112.

Eleanor Roosevelt, slide 2: "First Lady Biography: Eleanor Roosevelt." National First Ladies Library. 6 August 2018. http://www.firstladies.org/biographies/firstladies.aspx?biography=33

Eleanor Roosevelt, slide 4, quote 1: Hazel Rowley. Franklin and Eleanor: An Extraordinary Marriage. Picador, 2011.

Eleanor Roosevelt, slide 4, quote 2: Eleanor Roosevelt. "My Day." The George Washington University. 15 June 1946. 6 August 2018. https://www2.gwu.edu/~erpapers/myday/displaydoc.cfm?_y=1946&_f=md000366

Eli Whitney, slide 5: J. Franklin Jemison (ed). The American Historical Review, Volume 3. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1898.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, slide 2: Elizabeth Cady Stanton. The Woman’s Bible: A Classic Feminist Perspective. Dover Publications, 2003.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, slide 3, quote 1: "Harriet Powell's Escape from Slavery." University at Buffalo. 6 August 2018. http://www.math.buffalo.edu/~sww/0history/harriet.powell.escape.html

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, slide 3, quote 2: Theodore Stanton and Harriot Stanton Blanch (eds).

Elizabeth Cady Stanton: As Revealed in Her Letters & Diary. Big Byte Books, 1922.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, slide 4: "The Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony Papers Project." Rutgers. 6 August 2018. http://ecssba.rutgers.edu/docs/seneca.html

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, slide 7: "Elizabeth Cady Stanton Dies at Her Home." New York Times. 27 October 1902. 6 August 2018. http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1112.html

Elizabeth I, slide 2, quote 1: Alison Weir. The Life of Elizabeth I. New York: Ballantine Books, 2008, p. 13.

Elizabeth I, slide 2, quote 2: John S. Morrill and Stephen J. Greenblatt. "Elizabeth I: Queen of England." Encyclopedia Britannica. 6 August 2018. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Elizabeth-I

Elizabeth I, slide 4: The Life of Elizabeth I, p. 16.

Elizabeth I, slide 6: "Elizabeth's Tilbury Speech." British Library. 6 August 2018. http://www.bl.uk/learning/timeline/item102878.html

Ferdinand Magellan, slide 5: Laurence Bergreen . Over the Edge of the World. New York: William Morrow/HarperCollins, 2003, p. 183.

Ferdinand Magellan, slide 6: Ibid., p. 282.

Ferdinand Magellan, slide 7: Edward Gaylord Bourne. Spain in America. Forgotten Books, 2018, p. 156.

Francisco Coronado, slide 6: "Coronado's Report to the King of Spain Sent from Tiguex on October 20, 1541." PBS. 9 August 2018. http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/one/corona9.htm

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, slide 2: Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns. The Roosevelts: An Intimate History. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014. 27 July 2017.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, slide 4: "Franklin D. Roosevelt 131 - Address Accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago." The American Presidency Project. 27 July 2017. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=75174

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, slide 5: "FDR's First Inaugural Address Declaring 'War' on the Great Depression." National Archives. 27 July 2017. https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/fdr-inaugural

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, slide 6: "Franklin D. Roosevelt 154 – Fireside Chat." The American Presidency Project. 27 July 2017. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=15917

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, slide 7: "Speech by Franklin D. Roosevelt, New York (Transcript)." Library of Congress. 27 July 2017. https://www.loc.gov/resource/afc1986022.afc1986022_ms2201/?st=text

Franklin Pierce, slide 4: Jean H. Baker. "Franklin Pierce: Life Before the Presidency." 6 August 2018. https://millercenter.org/president/pierce/life-before-the-presidency

Franklin Pierce, slide 5, quote 1: "Franklin Pierce." History.com. 6 August 2018. http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/franklin-pierce

Franklin Pierce, slide 5, quote 2: "Andrew Jackson Gains His Nicknames." National Park Service. 6 August 2018. https://www.nps.gov/natr/learn/historyculture/andrew-jackson-gains-his-nicknames.htm

Franklin Pierce, slide 5, quote 3: "Jane Means Appleton Pierce." NCBLA. 6 August 2018. http://ourwhitehouse.org/jane-means-appleton-pierce/

Franklin Pierce, slide 6: "Franklin Pierce." The American Presidency Project. 4 March 1853. 6 August 2018. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=25816

Gabby Douglas, slide 4: Laura Cohen. "10 Empowering Gabby Douglas Quotes to Live By." People. 15 August 2016. 6 August 2018. http://people.com/celebrity/olympics-2016-gabby-douglas-inspiring-quotes/on-haters-who-criticized-her-hair

Gabby Douglas, slide 5: Stephanie Petit. "Gabby Douglas Reacts to Being Shut Out of All-Around Finals After Taking Home Gold in 2012: 'I Have No Regrets.'" People. 8 August 2016. 6 August 2018. http://people.com/sports/gabby-douglas-on-being-shut-out-of-all-around-finals-i-have-no-regrets/

Gabby Douglas, slide 6: Nick Zaccardi. "For Gabby Douglas, This Break From Gymnastics Is Different." NBC Sports. 27 July 2017. 6 August 2018. http://olympics.nbcsports.com/2017/07/27/gabby-douglas-gymnastics/

Galileo Galilei, slide 7: Dave Sobel. "Galileo's Place in Science." PBS. 29 Oct. 2002. 9 August 2018. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/physics/galileo-sobel.html

George H.W. Bush, slide 7: "George Bush: Inaugural Address." The American Presidency Project. 20 Jan. 1989. 9 August 2018. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=16610

George W. Bush, slide 2, quote 1: Stephen Mansfield. The Faith of George W. Bush. Lake Mary, Flo.: Charisma House, 2003.

George W. Bush, slide 2, quote 2: James Mann. George W. Bush The Amerian Presidents Series: The 43rd President, 2001–2009. Times Books, 2015, p. 7.

George W. Bush, slide 2, quote 3: Michael A. Leeds, Peter von Allmen, and Victor A. Matheson. The Economics of Sports. New York: Routledge, 2018.

George W. Bush, slide 5: Mark Langford. "Bush Becomes Texas' 46th Governor." 17 Jan. 1995. 9 August 2018. https://www.upi.com/Archives/1995/01/17/Bush-becomes-Texas-46th-governor/1586790318800/

George W. Bush, slide 6, quote 1: Michael Waldman. My Fellow Americans: The Most Important Speeches of American’s Presidents, from George Washington to George W. Bush . Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks, Inc., 2003, p. 308.

George W. Bush, slide 6, quote 2: George W. Bush The Amerian Presidents Series: The 43rd President, 2001–2009 , p. 72.

George Washington, slide 1: "First in War, First in Peace, and First in the Hearts of His Countrymen." George Washington's Mount Vernon. 27 July 2017. http://www.mountvernon.org/digital-encyclopedia/article/first-in-war-first-in-peace-and-first-in-the-hearts-of-his-countrymen/

George Washington, slide 2: "Cherry Tree Myth" George Washington's Mount Vernon. 27 July 2017. http://www.mountvernon.org/digital-encyclopedia/article/cherry-tree-myth/

Gerald Ford, slide 1: Paul Maidment. "Gerald Ford: The Accidental President." Forbes. 27 Dec. 2006. 9 August 2018. https://www.forbes.com/2006/12/27/notes-on-the-news-ford-biz-cx_pm_1227ford.html#7542176f554d

Gerald Ford, slide 2: Gerald Ford. A Time to Heal: The Autobiography of Gerald R. Ford. Harper & Row, 1979, p. 45.

Gerald Ford, slide 5: "Gerald R. Ford Quotes." Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum. 9 August 2018. https://www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov/grf/quotes.asp

Gerald Ford, slide 7: "Gerald Ford Dies; Nixon's Successor in '74 Crisis was 93." The New York Times. 27. Dec. 2006. 9 August 2018. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/27/obituaries/gerald-ford-dies-nixons-successor-in-74-crisis-was-93.html

Grover Cleveland, slide 4, quote 1: Alyn Brodsky. Grover Cleveland: A Study in Character. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000, p. 41.

Grover Cleveland, slide 4, quote 2: Ibid., p. 57.

Grover Cleveland, slide 5: "Grover Cleveland." The White House: President Barack Obama. 9 August 2018. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/1600/presidents/grovercleveland22

Grover Cleveland, slide 7: Henry F. Graff. "Grover Cleveland: Life after the Presidency." University of Virginia Miller Center. 9 August 2018. https://millercenter.org/president/cleveland/life-after-the-presidency

Harriet Beecher Stowe, slide 2: Harriet Beecher Stowe. The Life of Harriet Beecher Stowe: Compiled from her letters and journals by her son Charles Edward Stowe. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1889.

Harriet Beecher Stowe, slide 5: Ibid.

Harriet Beecher Stowe, slide 6, quote 1: Harriet Beecher Stowe, National Women's History Museum (website), January 2, 2018, https://www.nwhm.org/education-resources/biographies/harriet-beecher-stowe

Harriet Beecher Stowe, slide 6, quote 2: "Uncle Tom's Cabin." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 6 August 2018. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Uncle-Toms-Cabin

Harriet Tubman, slide 3: "Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad." National Park Service. 9 August 2018. https://www.nps.gov/articles/harriet-tubman-and-the-underground-railroad.htm

Harriet Tubman, slide 4: "Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad." National Park Service. 9 August 2018. https://www.nps.gov/articles/harriet-tubman-and-the-underground-railroad.htm

Harry S. Truman, slide 5: "Harry S. Truman." Biography. 6 August 2018. https://www.biography.com/video/harry-s-truman-mini-biography-2232213941

Harry S. Truman, slide 6: "Fourth Draft, Speech to NAACP."Harry S. Truman Presidential Library & Museum. 6 August 2018. https://www.trumanlibrary.org/flip_books/index.php?pagenumber=5&titleid=252&tldate=1947-06-28&collectionid=ihow&PageID=1&groupid=3723

Harry S. Truman, slide 7: "American Exprience: The Presidents." PBS. 1998.

Helen Keller, slide 2: Ibid.

Helen Keller, slide 3, quote 1: Ibid.

Helen Keller, slide 3, quote 2: Ibid.

Helen Keller, slide 4: Helen Keller. The Story of My Life. Vm Ebooks, 2015.

Helen Keller, slide 6: "Mrs. Macy Is Dead; Aided Miss Keller." New York Times. 21 Oct. 1936. 6 August 2018. http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0414.html

Henry Ford, slide 2: "A Young Henry Ford." Henry Ford Heritage Association. 8 August 2018. http://hfha.org/the-ford-story/young-henry-ford/

Henry Ford, slide 5: Henry Ford. My Life and Work. CreateSpace Independent Publishing, 2017, p. 27.

Herbert Hoover, slide 4: Eugene Lyons. Herbert Hoover: A Biography . Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1964, p. 102.

Herbert Hoover, slide 5: “Herbert Hoover.” The White House. https://www.whitehouse.gov/about-the-white-house/presidents/herbert-hoover/

Heroes of the Alamo, slide 7: "The Travis Letter—'Victory or Death.'" Texas Heritage Society. 9 August 2018. http://texasheritagesociety.org/The-Travis-Letter-Victory-or-Death-.html

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5442651

Indira Ganhdi, slide 2: Inder Malhotra. Indira Gandhi: A Personal and Political Biography. Northeastern, 1991, p. 485.

Indira Ganhdi, slide 3: Ibid., p. 683.

Indira Ganhdi, slide 4: Ibid., p. 983.

Issac Newton, slide 3: "Footprints of the Lion." University of Cambridge. 6 August 2018. http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/exhibitions/Footprints_of_the_Lion/learning.html

Issac Newton, slide 4: John Hudson Tiner. Exploring the World of Physics: From Simple Machines to Nuclear Energy. John Hudson Tiner, 2006.

Issac Newton, slide 5: Richard S. Westfall. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Jackie Joyner-Kersee, slide 6: Jackie Joyner-Kersee and Sonja Steptoe. A Kind of Grace. New York: Warner Books, 1997, p. 221.

Jackie Robinson, slide 5: Danny Peary. Jackie Robinson in Quotes: The Remarkable Life of Baseball's Most Significant Player. Page Street Publishing, 2016, p. 93.

James A. Lovell Jr., slide 2: "NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project." NASA. 25 May 1999. 6 August 2018. https://www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/LovellJA/LovellJA_5-25-99.htm

James A. Lovell Jr., slide 3: "Apollo 8: Christmas at the Moon." NASA. 19 Dec. 2014. 6 August 2018. https://www.nasa.gov/topics/history/features/apollo_8.html

James A. Lovell Jr., slide 5: "NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project."

James Buchanan, slide 4: John Bassett Moore (ed). The Works of James Buchanan: Comprising His Speeches, State Papers, and Private Correspondence, Volume 5, 1841–1844. J.B. Lippincott Company, 1908, p. 477.

James Garfield, slide 4: "Garfield's Role in the Civil War." Google. 9 August 2018. https://sites.google.com/site/tottiegirl/militarylife

James Garfield, slide 5: “'The Most Important Political Change We Have Known': James A. Garfield, Slavery, and Justice in the Civil War Era, Part II." James A. Garfield National Historic Site. 15 Feb. 2013. 9 August 2018. https://garfieldnps.wordpress.com/2013/02/15/the-most-important-political-change-we-have-known-james-a-garfield-slavery-and-justice-in-the-civil-war-era-part-ii/

James Garfield, slide 6: "Extraordinary James Garfield Letter on Assassination: It Can No More Be Guarded Against Than Death by Lightning." Shapell. 16 Nov. 1880. 9 August 2018. http://www.shapell.org/manuscript/james-garfield-letter-on-assassinations

James K. Polk, slide 5: "James K. Polk." The History Channel. 9 August 2018. http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/james-polk

James K. Polk, slide 7: Robert A. Nowlan. The American Presidents from Polk to Hayes: What They Did, What They Said & What Was Said About Them. Denver, Colo.: Outskirts Press, 2016, p. 21.

James Madison, slide 3: "Amendement I." The Founders Constitution. 10 July 1822. 6 August 2018. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/amendI_religions66.html

James Madison, slide 4, quote 1: "Federalist No. 51: The Structure of Government Must Furnish the Proper CHecks and Balances Between the Different Departments." The Constitution Society. 6 March 2018. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1404/1404-h/1404-h.htm#link2H_4_0051

James Madison, slide 4, quote 2: James Madison. White House. 6 August 2018. https://www.whitehouse.gov/1600/presidents/jamesmadison

James Madison, slide 7: "James Madison: Advice to My Country." National Archives. 6 August 2018. https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/99-02-02-2231

James Monroe, slide 5: "First Inaugural Address of James Monroe." The Avalon Project, Yale Law School. 4 March 1817. 9 August 2018. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/monroe1.asp

James Monroe, slide 5: Ibid.

James Monroe, slide 6: "Monroe Doctrine." The Avalaon Project, Yale Law School. 2 Dec. 1823. 9 August 2018. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/monroe.asp

Jane Addams, slide 3: Jean Bethke Elshtain. The Jane Addams Readers. New York: Basic Books, 2002.

Jane Addams, slide 4, quote 1: "Urban Experience in Chicago: Hull-House and its Neighborhoods 1889–1963." University of Illinois at Chicago. 6 August 2018. http://hullhouse.uic.edu/hull/urbanexp/main.cgi?file=new/show_doc.ptt&doc=170&chap=42

Jane Addams, slide 4, quote 2: Ibid.

Jane Goodall, slide 2: "Who We Are." The Jane Goodall Institute of Canada. 6 August 2018. https://janegoodall.ca/who-we-are/jane-goodall/

Jane Goodall, slide 3: Jane Goodall. My Life with the Chimpanzees. Aladdin, 1996, p. 367.

Jane Goodall, slide 4: "Our Story." The Jane Goodall Institute. 6 August 2018. http://www.janegoodall.org/our-story/

Jane Goodall, slide 7: "Impact." The Jane Goodall Institute. 6 August 2018. http://www.janegoodall.org/our-impact/

Jimmy Carter, slide 4, quote 1: Julian E. Zelizer. Jimmy Carter: The Ameican Presidents Series: The 39th President, 1977–1981 . Times Books, 2010, p. 19.

Jimmy Carter, slide 4, quote 2: James Wieghart and Paul Healy. "Jimmy Carter Breaks Protocol at Inauguration in 1977." Daily News. 21 Jan. 1977. 9 August 2018. http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/jimmy-carter-breaks-protocol-inauguration-1977-article-1.2478916

Jimmy Carter, slide 6, quote 1: "The Presidents." The History Channel. 6 March 2014. 8 August 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxiF-C1_tME

Jimmy Carter, slide 6, quote 2: Ibid.

John "Danny" Olivas, slide 3: "Danny Olivas: Flight Interview." NASA. 13 August 2009. 6 August 2018. https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts128/interview_olivas.html

John "Danny" Olivas, slide 4: Ibid.

John "Danny" Olivas, slide 5, quote 2: "NASA Astronaut John Olivas Making Appearance at Downey Space Center Saturday." The Downey Patriot. 26 Jan. 2017. 6 August 2018. http://www.thedowneypatriot.com/articles/nasa-astronaut-john-olivas-making-appearance-at-downey-space-center-saturday

John "Danny" Olivas, slide 5: quote 1, "Astronaut John 'Danny' Olivas." Uniphi Good. 6 August 2018. http://uniphigood.com/portfolio_page/john-danny-olivas/

John Adams, slide 4, quote 1: "A Bloody Butchery, by the British Troops; or the Runaway Fight of the Regulars." Massachusetts Historical Society. 9 August 2018. https://www.masshist.org/revolution/image-viewer.php?item_id=467&img_step=1&tpc=&pid=2&mode=large&tpc=&pid=2#page1

John Adams, slide 4, quote 2: Charles Francis Adams. John Adams: Second President of the United States. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1850, p. 317.

John Adams, slide 5: "Diary of John Adams, Volume 2." Massachusetts Historical Society. 9 August 2018. https://www.masshist.org/publications/apde2/view?id=ADMS-01-02-02-0003-0008-0001

John Adams, slide 6: David McCullough. John Adams. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001, p. 556

John Adams, slide 7: quote 1, Ibid., p. 639.

John Adams, slide 7: quote 2, "Fourth of July Special: Thomas Jefferson Survives." PBS. 4 July 1997. 9 August 2018. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/politics/politics-july-dec97-fourth_07-03

John Cabot, slide 4: David Boyle. Toward the Setting Sun: Columbus, Cabot, Vespucci, and the Race for America . Walker & Company, 2008, p. 195.

John Cabot, slide 6: Ibid.

John Cabot, slide 6: James A. Williamson. The Cabot Voyages and Bristol Discovery Under Henry VII. Cambridge, UK: The University Press, 1962, p. 213.

John Cabot, slide 7: Ian Wilson. John Cabot and the Matthew. St. John’s, New Foundland, 1996, p. 40.

John F. Kennedy, slide 1: "'Ask Not...': JFK's Words Still Inspire 50 Years Later." NPR. 11 Jan. 2011. 27 July 2017. http://www.npr.org/2011/01/18/133018777/jfks-inaugural-speech-still-inspires-50-years-later

John F. Kennedy, slide 2: "John F. Kennedy Speeches." John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. 27 July 2017. https://www.jfklibrary.org/Research/Research-Aids/JFK-Speeches/Civil-Rights-Radio-and-Television-Report_19630611.aspx

John Quincy Adams, slide 3: Harlow Giles Unger. John Quincy Adams. Boston: Da Capo Press, 2012, p. 71.

John Quincy Adams, slide 6: Ibid., p. 257.

John Quincy Adams, slide 7: "John Quincy Adams." Understanding Prejudice. 9 August 2018. http://www.understandingprejudice.org/slavery/presinfo.php?president=6

John Tyler, slide 3: Lucille Falkof. John Tyler: 10th President of the United States. Garrett Educational Corp, 1990, p. 57.

John Tyler, slide 4: Ibid., p. 65-66

John Tyler, slide 5: Ibid., p. 121-122

Jonas Salk, slide 2, quote 1: Sheryl Persson. Smallpox, Syphilis and Salvation: Medical Breakthroughs that Changed the World." Wollombi, Australia: Exisle Publishing, 2009.

Jonas Salk, slide 2, quote 2: Charlotte DeCroes Jacobs. Jonas Salk: A Life. Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 20.

Jonas Salk, slide 4; Ibid., p. 168.

Jonas Salk, slide 5: "Jimmy Carter." The American Presidency Project. 9 August 2018. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=7784

Juan Ponce de León, slide 6, quote 1: Robert H. Fuson. Juan Ponce de Leon and the Spanish Discovery of Puerto Rico and Florida . Blacksburg, Virg.: The McDonald and Woodward Publishing Company, 2000, p. 93.

Juan Ponce de León, slide 6, quote 2: Ibid., p. 165.

Juan Ponce de León, slide 7: Ibid., p. 231

Leonardo Da Vinci, slide 2: Walter Isaacson. Leonardo da Vinci. Simon & Schuster, 2017, p. 444.

Leonardo Da Vinci, slide 5: Ibid., p. 1573.

Lindsey Vonn, slide 3: Charles Robinson. "Frenemy Lines: Vonn Seals Spot as USA's 'Top Dog.'" Yahoo! Sports. 17 Feb. 2010. 9 August 2018. https://www.yahoo.com/news/frenemy-lines-vonn-seals-spot-033300172--oly.html

Lindsey Vonn, slide 6, quote 1: Charles Robinson. “Frenemy lines: Vonn seals spot as USA’s ‘top dog.’” Yahoo! Sports. 17 Feb. 2010. 6 August 2018. https://www.yahoo.com/news/frenemy-lines-vonn-seals-spot-033300172--oly.html

Lindsey Vonn, slide 6, quote 2: Christina Macfarlane and Aimee Lewis. "American great Lindsey Vonn determined to race against men." CNN. 1 Nov. 2017. 6 August 2018. http://www.cnn.com/2017/10/27/sport/lindsey-vonn-mens-downhill-soelden-world-cup-winter-olympics/index.html

Lisa Leslie, slide 4: Laureen Irat. "Big dreams paved the way for Lisa Leslie." ESPN. 6 August 2018. http://www.espn.com/wnba/story/_/id/13635503/lisa-leslie-inducted-naismith-memorial-basketball-hall-fame

Lisa Leslie, slide 5: "USA Women's Basketball: Lisa Leslie." NBA.com. 13 August 2008. 6 August 2018. http://www.nba.com/hoop/usawomen_oly08_lisa_leslie.html

Lisa Leslie, slide 6: "Lisa Leslie Career Look Back." YouTube. 18 Sept. 2009. 6 August 2018. Source Link

Louis Pasteur, slide 2: Louise E. Robbins. Louis Pasteur and the Hidden World of Microbes. Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 25.

Louis Pasteur, slide 4: Patrice Debré. Louis Pasteur. The John Hopkins University Press, 1998, p. 428.

Ludwig van Beethoven, slide 3: "Ludwig van Beethoven." Britannica. 6 August 2018. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ludwig-van-Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven, slide 5, quote 1: John Suchet. Beethoven: The Man Revealed. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2012.

Ludwig van Beethoven, slide 5, quote 2: "Beethoven's Symphony No. 1 in C Major, Op. 21." NPR. 5 June 2006. 6 August 2018.

Ludwig van Beethoven, slide 6: "Beethoven's Rise to fame (1792-1805)." All About Ludwig van Beethoven. 6 August 2018. http://www.all-about-beethoven.com/beethovenrise1.html

Ludwig van Beethoven, slide 7: Friedrich Kerst. Beethoven, the Man and the Artist: As Revealed in His Own Words. New York: H.W. Huebsch, 1905.

Lyndon B. Johnson, slide 2: Kent Germany. "Lyndon B. Johnson: Life Before the Presidency." University of Virginia Miller Center. 9 August 2018. https://millercenter.org/president/lbjohnson/life-before-the-presidency

Lyndon B. Johnson, slide 4, quote 1: Charles Peters. Lyndon B. Johnson: The American Presidents Series: The 36th President, 1963–1969. Times Books, 2010, p. 19.

Lyndon B. Johnson, slide 4, quote 2: Ibid., p. 27.

Lyndon B. Johnson, slide 6, quote 1: Michael Waldman. My Fellow Americans: The Most Important Speeches of America’s Presidents, from George Washington to George W. Bush . Naperville, Ill.: Sourcebooks, 2003, p. 189.

Lyndon B. Johnson, slide 6, quote 2: Ibid., pp. 197–198.

Madam C.J. Walker, slide 2: A’Lelia Bundles. On her Own Ground: The Life and Times of Madam C.J. Walker. Scribner, 2002, p. 34.

Madam C.J. Walker, slide 3: Ibid., p. 48.

Madam C.J. Walker, slide 6: Ibid., p. 152.

Mae Jemison, slide 2, quote 1: Mae Jemison. Find Where the Wind Goes: Moments from My Life. Scholastic Press, 2001, p. vii and viii.

Mae Jemison, slide 2, quote 2: Ibid., pp. vii. and 44-45.

Mae Jemison, slide 4: Elizabeth Hayes Turner, Stephanie Cole, and Rebecca Sharpless (eds). Texas Women: Their Histories, Their Lives. University of Georgia Press, 2015, p. 466.

Malala Yousafzai, slide 3 quote 1: "Malala Yousafzai." Biography Online. 6 August 2018. https://www.biographyonline.net/women/malala.html

Malala Yousafzai, slide 3, quote 2: Ibid.

Malala Yousafzai, slide 5: "Malala Yousafzai Delivers Defiant Riposte to Taliban Militants with Speech to the U.N. General Assembly." Independent. 12 July 2013. 6 August 2018. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/the-full-text-malala-yousafzai-delivers-defiant-riposte-to-taliban-militants-with-speech-to-the-un-8706606.html

Marco Polo, slide 3: "Description of the World: Marco Polo." Cengage. 9 August 2018. http://college.cengage.com/history/primary_sources/world/marco_polo_world.htm

Marco Polo, slide 7: Evan Andrews. "11 Things You May Not Know About Marco Polo." The History Channel. 12 march 2013. 9 August 2018. https://www.history.com/news/11-things-you-may-not-know-about-marco-polo

Maria Mitchell, slide 4: "Comet." Maria Mitchell Association, Nantucket's Science Center. 9 August 2018. https://www.mariamitchell.org/research-and-collections/maria-mitchell/for-students/comet

Maria Mitchell, slide 5, quote 1: Beatrice Gormley. Maria Mitchell: The Soul of an Astronomer. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2004, p. 74.

Maria Mitchell, slide 5: quote 2, Ibid., p. 76.

Maria Mitchell, slide 5: quote 3, Ibid., p. 80.

Maria Mitchell, slide 5: quote 4, Ibid., p. 100.

Marian Anderson, slide 4: Allan Kozinn. "Marian Anderson Is Dead at 96; Singer Shattered Racial Barriers." New York Times. 9 April 1993. 6 August 2018. http://www.nytimes.com/1993/04/09/obituaries/marian-anderson-is-dead-at-96-singer-shattered-racial-barriers.html?pagewanted=all

Marian Anderson, slide 5: "Marian Anderson's Groundbreaking Met Opera Moment." NPR. 7 Jan. 2015. 6 August 2018. https://www.npr.org/sections/deceptivecadence/2015/01/07/375440168/marian-andersons-groundbreaking-met-opera-moment

Marian Anderson, slide 6: "The Congressional Gold Medal for Singer Marian Anderson," History, Art & Archives United States House of Representatives, February 1, 2018, http://history.house.gov/HistoricalHighlight/Detail/36136

Marie Curie, slide 6: Melvin A. Benarde. Our Precarious Habitat. W.W. Norton & Company, 1973.

Mark Zuckerberg, slide 2: "Mark Zuckerberg." Facebook. 6 April 2016. 8 August 2018. https://www.facebook.com/zuck/posts/10102764095821611

Mark Zuckerberg, slide 5: Ibid.

Mark Zuckerberg, slide 6: "Mark Zuckerberg." Biography.com. 8 August 2018. https://www.biography.com/people/mark-zuckerberg-507402

Martin Luther King Jr., slide 3, quote 1: "The Montgomery Bus Boycott." Encyclopedia Britannica. 9 August 2018. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Martin-Luther-King-Jr/The-Montgomery-bus-boycott

Martin Luther King Jr., slide 3, quote 2: "Martin Luther King Recording Found in India." NPR. 16, Jan. 2009. 9 August 2018. https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=99480326

Martin Luther King Jr., slide 4: Martin Luther King Jr. "'I Have a Dream,' Address Delivered at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom." Stanford University. 28 August 1963. 9 August 2018. https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/king-papers/documents/i-have-dream-address-delivered-march-washington-jobs-and-freedom

Martin Van Buren, slide 2: "Martin Van Buren: Special Session Message." The American Presidency Project. 9 August 2018. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=67234

Martin Van Buren, slide 4: Ted Widmer. Martin Van Buren: The American Presidents Series: The 8th President, 1837–1841. Times Books, 2005, p. 60.

Martin Van Buren, slide 6: Erica Ryan. "5 Memorable Nicknames and the Politicians They Stuck To." NPR. 20 July 2013. 9 August 2018. https://www.npr.org/sections/itsallpolitics/2013/07/20/202961821/5-memorable-nicknames-and-the-politicians-they-stuck-to

Mia Hamm, slide 3: "Mission." Mia Hamm Foundation. 6 August 2018. http://www.miafoundation.org/mission/

Mia Hamm, slide 4: "Mia Hamm." Makers. 6 August 2018. https://www.makers.com/profiles/591f26af4d21a801db72e834

Michael Jordan, slide 2: Roland Lazenby. Michael Jordan: The Life. New York: Little, Brown & Company, 2014, p. 50.

Michael Jordan, slide 3: Ibid., p. 181.

Michael Jordan, slide 5, quote 1: Matt Christopher. Michael Jordan . New York: Little, Brown & Company, 2008, p. 76.

Michael Jordan, slide 5, quote 2: Ira Berkow. "Pro Basketball; Suddenly, Michael Doesn't Play Here Anymore." New York Times. 1993. 9 August 2018. http://www.nytimes.com/1993/10/07/sports/pro-basketball-suddenly-michael-doesn-t-play-here-anymore.html

Michael Phelps, slide 1: "Quotes About Michael Phelps." Reuters. 16 August 2008. 9 August 2018. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-olympics-swimming-phelps-quotes/factbox-quotes-about-michael-phelps-idUSPEK25951620080817

Michael Phelps, slide 4: Michael Phelps and Alan Abrahamson. No Limits: The Will to Succeed. New York: Free Press, 2009, p. 80.

Michael Phelps, slide 5: Bob Schaller. Michael Phelps: The Untold Story of a Champion. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2008, p. 197.

Michael Phelps, slide 7: Michael Phelps and Brian Cazeneuve. Michael Phelps: Beneath the Surface. Sports Publishing LLC, 2005, p. 106.

Michelangelo, slide 4, quote 1: William E. Wallace. Michelangelo: The Complete Sculpture, Painting, Architecture. Universe, 2009, p. 1005.

Michelangelo, slide 4, quote 2: Ibid., p. 422.

Michelangelo, slide 4, quote 3: Ibid., p. 458.

Millard Fillmore, slide 3: William Richard Cutter (ed). Genealogical and Family History of Western New York. Vol. 2: 808–811. 1912. 9 August 2018. http://buffaloah.com/h/mf/chron/index.html

Millard Fillmore, slide 6, quote 1: Robert J. Scarry. Millard Fillmore. McFarland, 2013, p. 181.

Millard Fillmore, slide 6, quote 2: Jesse Greenspan. “10 Things You Should Know About Millard Fillmore.” History. 7 March 2014. 9 August 2018. http://www.history.com/news/10-things-you-should-know-about-millard-fillmore

Millard Fillmore, slide 6, quote 3: “Millard Fillmore: Impact and Legacy.” Miller Center. 9 August 2018. https://web.archive.org/web/20161120150408/http://millercenter.org/president/biography/fillmore-impact-and-legacy

Millard Fillmore, slide 7, quote 1: Paul Finkelman. Millard Fillmore: The American Presidents Series: The 13th President, 1850–1853. Times Books, 2011, p. 133.

Millard Fillmore, slide 7, quote 2: "Millard Fillmore." The White House. 9 August 2018. https://www.whitehouse.gov/about-the-white-house/presidents/millard-fillmore/

Milton Hershey, slide 4: "School History." Milton Hershey School. 8 August 2018. https://www.mhskids.org/about/school-history/

Milton Hershey, slide 5: "A Living Legacy." The Hershey Story. 8 August 2018. https://hersheystory.org/milton-hershey-legacy/

Mo'ne Davis, slide 5: Hilary Beard. Mo’ne Davis: Remember My Name. HarperCollins, 2015, p. 178.

Mohandas Gandhi, slide 2: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truth, New York: Dover Publications, 1983.

Mohandas Gandhi, slide 5: Louis Fischer. The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2004.

Mohandas Gandhi, slide 6: "The Light Has Gone Out of Our Lives." EmersonKent.com. 6 August 2018. http://www.emersonkent.com/speeches/the_light_has_gone_out_of_our_lives.htm

Mother Teresa, slide 2: Kathryn Spink. Mother Teresa: An Authorized Biography. HarperOne, 2011, p. 7.

Mother Teresa, slide 3, quote 1: Ibid., page 17.

Mother Teresa, slide 3, quote 2: Ibid.

Mother Teresa, slide 3, quote 3: Ibid., page 22.

Mother Teresa, slide 3, quote 4: Jessica Duando. "10 Inspiring Quotes by Mother Teresa." 26 August 2014. 7 August 2018. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2014/08/26/mother-teresa-quotes/14364401/

Mother Teresa, slide 5: Mother Teresa: An Authorized Biography, page 77.

Neil Armstong, slide 4: "Apollo 11 Moon Landing." The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. 6 August 2018. https://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-Legacy/Apollo_11_Moon_Landing.aspx

Neil Armstong, slide 5, quote 1: "July 20, 1969: One Giant Leap For Mankind." NASA. 20 July 2017. 6 August 2018. https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/apollo11.html

Neil Armstong, slide 5, quote 2: "Is Neil Armstrong's famous Moon-landing quote really a misquote?" NDTV. 5 June 2013. 6 August 2018. https://www.ndtv.com/world-news/is-neil-armstrongs-famous-moon-landing-quote-really-a-misquote-524458

Neil Armstong, slide 6: "Neil Armstrong." Biography. 6 August 2018. https://www.biography.com/people/neil-armstrong-9188943

Nikola Tesla, slide 4: "Tesla—Master of Lightning." PBS. 9 August 2018. http://www.pbs.org/tesla/ll/ll_america.html

Oprah Winfrey, slide 2: Joyce West Stevens. Smart and Sassy: The Strengths of Inner-City Black Girls. Oxford University Press, 2002.

Oprah Winfrey, slide 4, quote 1: Evan Carmichael. "Oprah Winfrey's INSPIRING Story." 18 Nov. 2017. 7 August 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hv1qd0NPINA

Oprah Winfrey, slide 4, quote 2: Anjali Becker and Jeanne Engelmann (eds). Own It: Oprah Winfrey in Her Own Words. Agate Publishing, 2016.

Oprah Winfrey, slide 4, quote 3: "Oprah Winfrey's INSPIRING Story."

Pablo Picasso, slide 3: "Pablo Picasso." Ajuntament de Barcelona. 6 August 2018. http://www.bcn.cat/museupicasso/en/picasso/conversation.html#arte

Pablo Picasso, slide 5: Charles River Editors. History’s Greatest Artists: The Life and Legacy of Pablo Picasso. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2015, p. 330.

Pablo Picasso, slide 7: Alex Danchev. "Picasso's Politics." The Guardian. 8 May 2010. 6 August 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2010/may/08/pablo-picasso-politics-exhibition-tate

Queen Victoria, slide 2: Julia Baird. Victoria the Queen: An Intimate Biography of the Woman Who Ruled an Empire. Random House, 2017, page 22.

Queen Victoria, slide 3: Ibid., p. 40.

Queen Victoria, slide 4: Ibid., p. 60.

Rachel Carson, slide 3: "Rachel Carson." The New York Times. 9 August 2018. https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/books/first/l/lear-carson.html?scp=18&sq=ohio%2520farm&st=cse

Rachel Carson, slide 5: David Kinkela. DDT and the American Century: Global Health, and Environmental Politics, and the Pesticide That Changed the World. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2013, p. 40.

Rachel Carson, slide 6: "American Experience." PBS. 6 August 2018. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/rachel-carson/#part01

René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, slide 4: John Upton Terrell. La Salle: The Life and Times of an Explorer. New York: Weybright and Talley, 1968, p. 78.

René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, slide 5: Francis Parkman. La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West, Volume 1. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1897, p. 214.

René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, slide 6: Anka Muhlstein. La Salle: Explorer of the North American Frontier. New York: Arcade Publishing, 1994, p. 157.

Richard Nixon, slide 5: "First Inaugural Address of Richard Milhous Nixon." The Avalon Project, Yale Law School. 20 Jan. 1969. 9 August 2018. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/nixon1.asp

Richard Nixon, slide 6, quote 2: "President Nixon's Resignation Speech." PBS. 8 August 1974. 9 August 2018. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/spc/character/links/nixon_speech.html

Richard Nixon, slide 6: quote 1, Carroll Kilpatrick. "Nixon Tells Editors, 'I'm Not a Crook.'" Washington Post. 18 Nov. 1973. 9 August 2018. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/watergate/articles/111873-1.htm

Ronald Reagan, slide 7: "Text of Letter Writtten by President Ronald Reagan Announcing He Has Alzheimer's Disease." Ronald Reagan Presidential Library & Museum. 9 August 2018. https://www.reaganlibrary.gov/sreference/reagan-s-letter-announcing-his-alzheimer-s-diagnosis

Rosa Parks: "Rosa Parks Arrested." Library of Congress. 27 July 2017. https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/december-01

Ruth Handler, slide 5, quote 1: Jennifer Latson. "The Barbie Doll's Not-for-Kids Origins." Time. 9 March 2015. 6 August 2018. http://time.com/3731483/barbie-history/

Ruth Handler, slide 5, quote 2: "The History of Barbie." Mattel. 6 August 2018. https://barbie.mattel.com/en-us/about/our-history.html

Rutherford B. Hayes, slide 3: Ari Hoogenboom. "Rutherford B. Hayes: Life Before the Presidency." University of Virginia Miller Center. 9 August 2018. https://millercenter.org/president/hayes/life-before-the-presidency

Rutherford B. Hayes, slide 6, quote 1: Scott S. Greenberger. The Unexpected President: The Life and Times of Chester A. Arthur. Da Capo Press, 2017.

Rutherford B. Hayes, slide 6, quote 2: Williams, Charles Richard Williams and William Henry Smith. The Life of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Nineteeth President of the United States, vol. 2. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1914, p. 75.

Rutherford B. Hayes, slide 6, quote 3: Ibid., p. 326.

Rutherford B. Hayes, slide 7: Hans L. Trefousse. Rutherford B. Hayes. Times Books, 2002, p. 146.

Sacagawea: James P. Ronda. "Lewis & Clark Among the Indians Appendix: A Note on Sacagawea." University of Nebraska PressLincoln and London. 1984. 27 July 2017. https://lewisandclarkjournals.unl.edu/item/lc.sup.ronda.01.appendix#ln1103

Sam Walton, slide 2: Sam Walton. Sam Walton, Made in America: My Story. New York: Doubleday, 1992, p. 6.

Sam Walton, slide 3: Ibid., p. 19.

Sam Walton, slide 5: "The Walmart Digital Museum." Walmart. 8 August 2018. https://walmartmuseum.auth.cap-hosting.com/explore/#/timeline/artifact/b1092817-58b9-416f-977f-d4885472c841

Samuel Adams, slide 4: Samuel Fallows. Samuel Adams: A Character Sketch, Issue 2. University of Michigan Libraries, 1817, p. 104.

Samuel Adams, slide 5: Dennis B. Fradin. Samuel Adams: The Father of the American Independence. New York: Clarion Books, 1998, p. viii.

Sandra Day O' Conner, slide 2: Charles Lane. "Courting O'Conner." Washington Post. 4 July 2004. 6 August 2018. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A16332-2004Jun29_3.html

Sandra Day O' Conner, slide 6, quote 1: Harold and Geraldine Woods. Equal Justice: A Biography of Sandra Day O’Connor. Minneapolis, Minn.: Dillon Press, Inc., 1985.

Sandra Day O' Conner, slide 6, quote 2: Kamen, Al, and Marjorie Williams. “Woman of the Hour: Sandra Day O’Connor — as the swing vote on a divided Supreme Court — is not the most influential woman in America. But don’t try to tell her that.” Washington Post. 11 June 1989. 6 August 2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/arts-and-entertainment/wp/2016/03/29/how-sandra-day-oconnor-became-the-most-powerful-woman-in-1980s-america/?utm_term=.743692f655c0

Sarah Winnemucca, slide 2: Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins. Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Company, 2017, p. 70.

Sequoyah, slide 5: "Sequoyah and the Cherokee Syllabary." Cherokee Nation. 9 August 2018. http://www.cherokee.org/About-The-Nation/History/Facts/Sequoyah-and-the-Cherokee-Syllabary

Sequoyah, slide 7, quote 1: "Sequoyah." Cherokee Nation. 9 August 2018. http://www.cherokee.org/About-The-Nation/History/Biographies/Sequoyah

Sequoyah, slide 7, quote 2: "Cherokee Nation Dedicates Sequoyah Statue to Sequoyah Schools." Cherokee Nation. 9 August 2018. http://www.cherokee.org/News/Stories/31990

Serena Williams, slide 3: "Serena Williams Biography." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 9 August 2018. http://www.notablebiographies.com/news/Sh-Z/Williams-Serena.html

Serena Williams, slide 5: "Serena Williams." Thesis Site. 9 August 2018. https://www.thesissite.com/2017/12/serena-williams-serena-williams.html

Sitting Bull, slide 4: S.D. Nelson. Sitting Bull: Lakota Warrior and Defender of His People. New York: Abrams Books for Young Readers, 2015, p. 16.

Sitting Bull, slide 5, quote 1: Robert M. Utley. Sitting Bull: The Life and Times of an American Patriot. New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC, p. 87.

Sitting Bull, slide 5, quote 2: Peter and Connie Roop. Sitting Bull. New York: Scholastic, 2002, p. 68.

Sitting Bull, slide 6: Ibid., p. 83.

Sitting Bull, slide 7: Ibid., p. 31.

Sojouner Truth, slide 4: Peter Krass. Sojourner Truth: Antislavery Activist. Chelsea House Publishers, 2005.

Sojouner Truth, slide 6, quote 1: Ibid.

Sojouner Truth, slide 6, quote 2: "Sojourner Truth (1797-1883): Ain't I A Woman?" Fordham University. 1851. 6 August 2018. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/sojtruth-woman.asp

Stephen Hawking, slide 3: "An Exceptional Man." National Center for Biotechnology Information. 22 June 2002. 6 August 2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1123440/

Stephen Hawking, slide 5: "Stephen Hawking tells how doctors offered to turn off life support in 1985." The Guardian. 28 July 2013. 6 August 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/jul/28/stephen-hawking-doctors-life-support

Stephen Hawking, slide 6: "Hawking loses black hole bet." PhysicsWorld. 22 July 2004. 6 August 2018. http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2004/jul/22/hawking-loses-black-hole-bet

Susan B. Anthony, slide 6: "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774–1875." The Library of Congress. 27 July 2017. https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llsl&fileName=014/llsl014.db&recNum=389

Susan B. Anthony, slide 7: "The Women's Suffrage Movement." National Susan B. Anthony House & Museum. 2013. 27 July 2017. http://susanbanthonyhouse.org/her-story/suffrage-movement.php

Texan Business Leaders, slide 1: "Mary Kay Ash." American National Biography. 9 August 2018. http://www.anb.org/articles/10/10-02284.html

Texan Composers and Entertainers, slide 1: "Julius Bledsoe." Humanities Texas. 9 August 2018. http://www.humanitiestexas.org/programs/tx-originals/list/julius-bledsoe

Texan Explorers and Pioneers, slide 6: "Dr. Hector P Garcia Papers." Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi: Mary and Jeff Bell Library. 9 August 2018. http://hectorpgarcia.tamucc.edu

Texan Politicians, slide 2: "Politicians Supporting Change Through Legislation." The University of Texas at Austin. 9 August 2018. https://www.cah.utexas.edu/feature/0611/grade11_biography.pdf

Texan Politicians, slide 4: Francis X. Clines. "Barbara Jordan Dies at 59; Her Voice Stirred the Nation. The New York Times. 1996. 9 August 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/1996/01/18/us/barbara-jordan-dies-at-59-her-voice-stirred-the-nation.html

Texan Politicians, slide 6: "Former Texas Governor Ann Richards Dies at 73." The New York Times. 13 Sept. 2006. 9 August 2018. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/13/us/14wire-richards.html

Texan Politicians, slide 7: "Rayburn Is Dead; Served 17 Years as House Speaker." The New York Times. 17 Nov. 1961. 9 August 2018. https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0106.html

Texans in the Military, slide 5, quote 1: "Roll Call of Texas Heroes—Sidney Sherman—His Flag and Battle Cry." Texas Heroes Foundation. 24 Dec. 2013. 9 August 2018. http://texasheroesfoundation.org/texas-heroes/roll-call-of-texas-heroes-sidney-sherman-his-flag-and-battle-cry/

Texans in the Military, slide 5, quote 2: Ibid.

The 442nd Regimental Combat Team, slide 2, quote 1, Stephanie Bangarth. Voices Raised in Protest: Defending North American Citizens of Japanese Ancestory, 1942–49. Vancouver, Toronto: UBC Press, 2008.

The 442nd Regimental Combat Team, slide 2, quote 2: "Fighting for Democracy." PBS. 9 August 2018. http://www.pbs.org/thewar/at_war_democracy_japanese_american.htm

The 442nd Regimental Combat Team, slide 3: Ibid.

The 442nd Regimental Combat Team, slide 5: Jordan Steffen. "White House Honors Japanese American WWII Veterans." Los Angeles Times. 6 Oct. 2010. 9 August 2018. http://articles.latimes.com/2010/oct/06/nation/la-na-veterans-medal-20101006

The Wright Brothers, slide 2: "Susan Wright." Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. 6 August 2018. https://airandspace.si.edu/exhibitions/wright-brothers/online/who/1859/susan.cfm

The Wright Brothers, slide 5: "The Aerial Age Begins." Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. 6 August 2018. https://airandspace.si.edu/exhibitions/wright-brothers/online/age/1908/index.cfm

Theodore Roosevelt, slide 2, quote 1: John A. Gable. "Roosevelt, Theodore." World Book Advanced. 27 July 2017. Source

Theodore Roosevelt, slide 2, quote 2: "Theodore Roosevelt, Sr." National Park Service. 26 February 2015. 27 July 2017. https://www.nps.gov/thrb/learn/historyculture/theodorerooseveltsr.htm

Theodore Roosevelt, slide 2, quote 3:"Quotations from the speeches and other works of Theodore Roosevelt." Theodore Roosevelt Association. 27 July 2017. Source

Theodore Roosevelt, slide 6: "Where It All Started: Theodore Roosevelt National Park." Discovering Adventure. 16 Oct. 2015. 27 July 2017. https://sites.psu.edu/gorgasnationalparks/2015/10/16/where-it-all-started-theodore-roosevelt-national-park/

Theodore Roosevelt, slide 7: Joseph R. Ornig. "My Last Chance to Be a Boy: Theodore Roosevelt's South American Expedition of 1913 to 1914." Louisiana State University Press: Baton Rouge, 1994, page 3.

Thomas Edison, slide 2: Neil Baldwin. Edison: Inventing the Century. New York: Hyperion, 1995, p. 20.

Thomas Edison, slide 4, quote 1: "Thomas Edison and Menlo Park." The Thomas Edison Center at Menlo Park. 9 August 2018. http://www.menloparkmuseum.org/history/thomas-edison-and-menlo-park/

Thomas Edison, slide 4, quote 2: Ibid.

Thomas Edison, slide 6: "History of Edison Motion Pictures." Library of Congress. 9 August 2018. https://www.loc.gov/collections/edison-company-motion-pictures-and-sound-recordings/articles-and-essays/history-of-edison-motion-pictures/

Thomas Jefferson, slide 4: "The Declaration of Independence." UShistory.org. 27 July 2017. http://www.ushistory.org/DECLARATION/document/

Thomas Jefferson, slide 6: "The Embargo of 1807." Digital History. 27 July 2017. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=2986

Thurgood Marshall, slide 2: Lucy D. Suddreth. "Thurgood Marshall." Library of Congress. 9 August 2018. http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/93/9304/marshall.html

Thurgood Marshall, slide 4: Howard Ball. A Defiant Life: Thurgood Marshall and the Persistence of Racism in America . New York: Crown, 1998, p. 54.

Thurgood Marshall, slide 5, quote 1: "Plessy V. Ferguson." The History Channel. 9 August 2018. https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/plessy-v-ferguson

Thurgood Marshall, slide 5, quote 2: A Defiant Life: Thurgood Marshall and the Persistence of Racism in America , p. 54.

Thurgood Marshall, slide 6, quote 1: Bryan A. Stevenson and John F. Stinneford. "Amendment VIII: Excessive Fines, Cruel and Unusual Punishment." National Constitution Center. 9 August 2018. https://constitutioncenter.org/interactive-constitution/amendments/amendment-viii

Thurgood Marshall, slide 6, quote 2: William Clinton. “Proclamation 6526—Death of Thurgood Marshall.” The American Presidency Project. 24 Jan. 1993. 9 August 2018. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=62409

Todd Beamer, slide 5, quote 1: "Todd Beamer." American National Biography Online. 14 May 2014. 9 August 2018. http://archive.is/efgRd#selection-73.859-73.885

Todd Beamer, slide 5, quote 2: Ibid.

Todd Beamer, slide 6: "George W. Bush: United Flight 93 National Memorial Dedication Address." American Rhetoric. 10 September 2011. 9 August 2018. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/gwbushflight93memorial.htm

Tuskegee Airmen, slide 2: "Militia Act of 1792." George Washington's Mount Vernon. 9 August 2018. http://www.mountvernon.org/education/primary-sources-2/article/militia-act-of-1792/

Tuskegee Airmen, slide 3: "Tuskegee Airmen." The History Channel. 9 August 2018. https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/tuskegee-airmen

Ulysses S. Grant, slide 2: "Ulysses S. Grant's Reflections on the War." Smithsonian Source. 27 March 2017. http://www.smithsoniansource.org/display/primarysource/viewdetails.aspx?PrimarySourceId=1047

Ulysses S. Grant, slide 4, quote 1: Brooks D. Simpson. Ulysses S. Grant: Triumph over Adversity. Zenith Press: Minneapolis, 2014, p. 79.

Ulysses S. Grant, slide 4, quote 2: "Battle of Fort Donelson." Britannica. 27 July 2017. http://kids.britannica.com/oscar/article-9030913

Ulysses S. Grant, slide 4, quote 3: "U.S. Grant: Warrior (2011)." PBS. 27 July 2017. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/transcript/usgrant-transcript/

Ulysses S. Grant, slide 7: Edward J. Blum and W Scott Poole. Vale of Tears: New Essays on Religion and Reconstruction. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 2005, p. 227.

Vera Wang, slide 2, quote 1: Shane Mitchell. "Vera Wang's Favorite Places." 1 May 2009. 6 August 2018. http://www.travelandleisure.com/articles/wangs-world

Vera Wang, slide 2, quote 2: Jennifer Vineyard. "Vera Wang Says: Know When to Walk Away ... and Start Something New." The Cut. 24 June 2015. 6 August 2018. https://www.thecut.com/2015/06/vera-wang-says-know-when-to-walk-away.html

Vera Wang, slide 3: Cynthia Sanz. "Chic to Chic." People. 20 July 1998. 6 August 2018. http://people.com/archive/chic-to-chic-vol-50-no-1/

Vera Wang, slide 5: Patricia Morrisroe. "Vera Wang's Fashion Empire." Departures. 30 March 2010. 6 August 2018. https://www.departures.com/fashion/style/vera-wang%E2%80%99s-fashion-empire

W.E.B Du Bois, slide 2: "W.E.B. DuBois: The Person." Pfeiffer University. 6 August 2018. http://media.pfeiffer.edu/lridener/DSS/DuBois/DUBOISP1.HTML

W.E.B. Du Bois, slide 5: David L. Lewis. W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century, 1919-1963. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2000, p. 400.

Wallace Amos, slide 2: "Wally Amos." Biography.com. 6 August 2018. https://www.biography.com/people/wally-amos-9542382

Wallace Amos, slide 4: Rachel Kranz. African-American Business Leaders and Entrepreneurs. Facts on File, 2004.

Wallace Amos, slide 6: "A Message to the Kids from Wally Amos." YouTube. 6 August 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5iRTLB7W2RQ

Warren G. Harding, slide 2: John W. Dean. Warren G. Harding. New York: Times Books, 2004, p. 9.

Warren G. Harding, slide 5, quote 1: "Warren G. Harding." whitehouse.gov. 6 August 2018. https://www.whitehouse.gov/about-the-white-house/presidents/warren-g-harding/

Warren G. Harding, slide 5, quote 2: Ibid.

Warren G. Harding, slide 5, quote 3: "Warren G. Harding: Inaugural Addess." The American Presidency Project. 4 March 1921. 6 August 2018. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=25833

Warren G. Harding, slide 6: "Warren G. Harding." History.com. 6 August 2018. http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/warren-g-harding

Wayne Gretzky, slide 2: Wayne Gretzky. Gretzky: An Autobiography. New York: Edward Burlingame Book, p. 17.

William Henry Harrison, slide 3: C. W. Williamson. History of Western Ohio and Auglaize County: With Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Pioneers and Prominent Public Men V2 (1905) . Kessinger Publishing, 2010, p. 105.

William Henry Harrison, slide 5: "American History: 1840 U.S. Presidential Campaign." Historynet. 8 August 2018. http://www.historynet.com/american-history-1840-us-presidential-campaign.htm

William Henry Harrison, slide 6: "Sir I wish you to understand the true principles of the government. I wish them carried out. I ask nothing more." Library of Congress. 8 August 2018. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2013645254/

William Howard Taft, slide 7: "William Howard Taft." The White House. 9 August 2018. https://www.whitehouse.gov/about-the-white-house/presidents/william-howard-taft/

William McKinley, slide 5: "First Inaugural Address of William McKinley." Yale Law School. 4 March 1897. 8 August 2018. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/mckin1.asp

William McKinley, slide 6: Ibid.

Wilma Mankiller, slide 2: Wilma Mankiller and Michael Wallis. Mankiller: A Chief and Her People. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993, p. 44.

Wilma Mankiller, slide 3: Ibid., p. 205.

Wilma Mankiller, slide 4: Ibid., p. 229.

Wilma Mankiller, slide 5: Ibid., p. 242.

Wilma Rudolph, slide 2, quote 1: "10 Quotes from Olympic Medalist Wilma Rudolph." The Christian Science Monitor. 6 August 2018. https://www.csmonitor.com/Books/2012/0623/10-quotes-from-Olympic-medalist-Wilma-Rudolph/Mother-knows-best

Wilma Rudolph, slide 2, quote 2: Marney Rich Keenan. "Wilma Rudolph." Chicago Tribune. 9 Jan. 1989. 6 August 2018. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1989-01-08/features/8902230553_1_braces-gym-wilma-rudolph

Wilma Rudolph, slide 3: Frank Litsky. "Wilma Rudolph, Star of the 1960 Olympics, Dies at 54." New York Times. 13 Nov. 1994. 6 August 2018. http://www.nytimes.com/1994/11/13/obituaries/wilma-rudolph-star-of-the-1960-olympics-dies-at-54.html

Wilma Rudolph, slide 5: Ibid.

Wilma Rudolph, slide 6, quote 1: "Wilma Rudolph."

Wilma Rudolph, slide 6, quote 2: Maureen M. Smith. Wilma Rudolph: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006.

Wolfgang Mozart, slide 2, quote 1: “Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.” Britannica. 6 August 2018. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Wolfgang-Amadeus-Mozart

Wolfgang Mozart, slide 2, quote 2: "Full Text of 'The Letters of Mozart & His Family Volume I.'" archive.org. 6 August 2018. https://archive.org/stream/lettersofmozarth000861mbp/lettersofmozarth000861mbp_djvu.txt

Wolfgang Mozart, slide 4: "The Letters of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart." Gutenberg. 6 August 2018. https://www.gutenberg.org/files/5307/5307-h/5307-h.htm#link2H_4_0002

Wolfgang Mozart, slide 7: Arthur I. Miller. "A Genius Finds Inspiration in the Music of Another." New York Times. 31 Jan. 2006. 6 August 2018. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/31/science/a-genius-finds-inspiration-in-the-music-of-another.html

Woodrow Wilson, slide 5: Saladin Ambar. "Woodrow Wilson: Campaigns and Elections." University of Virginia Miller Center. 9 August 2018. https://millercenter.org/president/wilson/campaigns-and-elections

Woodrow Wilson, slide 6, quote 1: "Woodrow Wilson: Peace Without Victory." Mount Holyoke. 9 August 2018. https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/ww15.htm

Woodrow Wilson, slide 6, quote 2: "Wilson's War Message to Congress." BYU. 2 April 1917. 9 August 2018. https://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Wilson%27s_War_Message_to_Congress

Yo-Yo Ma, slide 3: David Blum. Quintet: Five Journey Toward Musical Fulfillment. New York: Cornell University Press, 1999.

Yo-Yo Ma, slide 4: Edith Eisler. "Yo-Yo Ma: On the Silk Road." Strings. 1 May 2001. 9 August 2018. http://stringsmagazine.com/yo-yo-ma-on-the-silk-road/

Yo-Yo Ma, slide 6: "Secretary-General To Recognize Renowned Cellist Yo-Yo Ma as Messenger of Peace." United Nations. 21 Sept. 2006. 6 August 2018. http://www.un.org/press/en/2006/note6034.doc.htm

Zachary Taylor, slide 4, quote 1: Justine Slaughter Doty. The American Presidency for Beginners. Danbury, Conn.: For Beginners LLC, 2017.

Zachary Taylor, slide 4, quote 2: "Zachary Taylor's shocking death amid the slavery expansion crisis." Constitution Daily. 2 October 2014. 6 August 2018. https://constitutioncenter.org/blog/a-presidential-death-and-averting-two-constitutional-crises

Zachary Taylor, slide 5: Henry Montgomery. The Life of Major General Zachary Taylor. New York: James C Derby & Co, 1850.